Announcements • Make-up and re-take exams on Friday, 12 December, 3:00-5:00, in J 406 • Study questions on Blackboard • Final exam on Monday, 15 December, 10:30-12:30, in J 237 • All questions from units 1-4 taken from previous exams • Review materials for prophets and post-exilic history are on Blackboard
Come, Thou Long-Expected Jesus Born to set Thy people free. From our fears and sins release us; Let us find our rest in Thee. Israel’s strength and consolation, Hope of all the earth Thou art. Dear Desire of every nation, Joy of every longing heart.
Born Thy people to deliver, Born a child and yet a king, Born to reign in us forever, Now Thy gracious kingdom bring. By Thine own eternal Spirit Rule in all our hearts alone; By Thine all-sufficient merit Raise us to Thy glorious throne.
Post-Exilic Judaism: Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther
Biblical Ezra and Nehemiah Narratives Letters Documents Lists Haggai and Zechariah Esther Malachi Extra-biblical Herodotus Josephus Persian inscriptions Archaeological Papyri Official seals with names Sources
General History of the Period: The Rise of Medo-Persia • Review • 722 – fall of the north to Assyria (Nineveh) • 612 – fall of Nineveh to Babylon • 587/6 – fall of Jerusalem to Babylon • Cyrus the Great (559-530) – first return • Cambyses (530-522) • Darius I (522-486) – Temple completed • Xerxes I/Ahasuerus (486-465) – Esther • Artaxerxes I (464-425) – Ezra, Nehemiah, Malachi
Jerusalem Re-established (539-516)[Ezra’s review of history – chs 1-6] • Cyrus’s edict in 539 • Returnees • Leadership (royal and priestly lines) • Sheshbazzar • Zerubbabel • Joshua • Opposition • Enemies of Judah and Benjamin • Samaritan opposition • Rebuilding and completing the Temple (516)
Esther before Ahasuerus – the version in the Septuagint (Greek translation)
Esther in a Foreign Court (ca 483) • A literary masterpiece built around… • Reversals • A long “thread” of biblical allusions – deliverance at Passover; Amalekites (Agag) • A comic portrayal of the Persian court • Key themes • Threat to Judaism in the diaspora • Hiddenness / Sovereignty of God
Ezra’s Return to Jerusalem (ca. 460) • Ezra 7:1-11 • Ezra’s identity • Priest - line of Aaron • Teacher who knew the Torah • His mission
The Reformation (Ezra 7-10; Nehemiah 8-10) • The Problem(s) • Ezra’s prayer • Punishment of the disobedient • Reading the Torah and celebrating the Feast of Tabernacles • Fasting, confession, covenant to keep the Torah • The intent of the reform • Prevent another exile from occurring • Intermarriage with foreigners would lead to idolatry
Nehemiah the Governor (ca. 444) • Identity and character • In the administration of Artaxerxes I • A man of faith, prayer, and action • Strengthening Jerusalem’s defenses (chapters1-6) • The reformation with Ezra (chapters 8-10)
Nehemiah’s Word • Development of Jerusalem • People moved into Jerusalem • Walls of Jerusalem dedicated • Ongoing religious reformation • removing foreigners • payment of tithes • keeping the Sabbath • addressing the problem of intermarriage