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REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON NUTRIENT POLLUTION CONTROL IN THE DANUBE-BLACK SEA BASINS. CHISINAU, REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA (october, 3-6 2006). PROBLEM OF WATER QUALITY CONTROL IN THE NIGER BASIN. By M. Ould ALY OUMAR Niger-HYCOS Project Coordonator

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REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON NUTRIENT POLLUTION CONTROL IN THE DANUBE-BLACK SEA BASINS

CHISINAU, REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

(october, 3-6 2006)

PROBLEM OF WATER QUALITY CONTROL

IN THE NIGER BASIN

By M. Ould ALY OUMAR

Niger-HYCOS Project Coordonator

Niger Basin Authority, Niamey, NIGER REPUBLIC

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CONTENTS

  • 1. INTRODUCTION
  • THE NIGER BASIN AND SUB-REGIONAL COOPERATION
  • RIVER NIGER HYDROLOGY
  • IMPACT OF CLIMATIC CHANGE ON HYDROLOGY
  • PROBLEMATIC OF WATER QUALITY CONTROL WITHIN THE NIGER BASIN
  • 5.1 THE ACTUAL SITUATION
  • 5.2 THE WAYS FORWARD
  • 6. CONCLUSION
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1.0INTRODUCTION

Since several years the Niger Basin is facing the impacts of the climatic changes and the effect of growing population. This affects the surface and sub-surface waters. The concerned countries have not sufficient means to control the situation except at some urban and rural area.

The Niger Basin Authority in charge of the managment of the water resources is looking forward to solve the problem.

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The Niger Basin

in West Africa

Africa River Basins

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THE NIGER BASIN

  • 9th largest world river
  • 3rd largest river in Africa
  • Theoretical Catchment Area = 2 million km²
  • Active Catchment Area = 1.5 million km²
  • Length of the river = 4200 km

RIVERINE COUNTRIES

Algeria, (0.5), Bénin (2 %) Burkina (2%) Cameroun (4 %) TChad (1 %) Cote D’Ivoire (1%) Guinée (6 %), Mali (25 %), Niger (21 %) Nigeria ( 31.5 %); Population Over 100 Million (1995);

Urban 32% Rural; 68% Growth Rate 3%: Per Capital; 400 USD/yr; Access to Potable Water 52%; Navigation: 3,500 km (Not continuous)

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- Established:1963 as River Niger Commission (RNC)by the 9 Countries namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroun, Chad, Cote D’Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria

  • - Changed to NBA in 1980 with additional mandates
  • THE MANDATES
  • - fostering cooperation among its members states.
  • - enhancement of integrated water resources management and development
  • - ensure the integrated development of the basin in all fields notably energy, water resources, agriculture, sylviculture, transportation and communications, and industry.
  • POLITICAL Structure
  •  Summit of Heads of State and Governments
  • The Council of Ministers
  • Technical Committee of Experts
  • NBA Executive Secretariat
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4. IMPACT OF CLIMATIC

CHANGE ON OF THE BASIN

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5.PROBLEM OF WATER

QUALITY CONTROL

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5.1 ACTUAL SITUATION

  • Tne Niger Basin Authority with the World Bank support engaged a consultanting mission in 2004-2005 with the objectives to:
  • - Identify the major sources of pollution within the Basin;
  • The nature of the pollution;
  • Identify the national capacities in termes of Biological and Micro-biological analysis in the NBA member countries.
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5.1 ACTUAL SITUATION (CONt)

  • The consultant mission observed many sources of pollution mainly:
  • Agriculture
  • Industries
  • Livestock
  • Garbages
  • Mines
  • Sewage
  • Petrolum Explotation (in Nigeria)
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Some exemple from the consultant mission report

Diamond exploitation at Kérouané

( Guinea)

Private exploitaion of Gold (Mali)

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Tannery (Niger)

Abattoir (Mali)

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Garbages (Bénin)

Indutrial pollution (Niger)

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The NBA has engaged since 2002 in a process of Share Vision in view of a Sustainable Development of the basin. One of the major result of this process is the elaboration of a Master plan of the basin. This plan is supported by several partners with the World Bank at the head.

The knowledge on the basin’s water resources in terms of quantity and quality constitute a fundamental element of the Share Vision in the basin development. In this perspectives Canada has already expressed it interest to many of the Share Vision activities and programmes.

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The improvement of water quality is a part of its support to the NBA. In a pilot phase it has been considered to:

1)  Identify the high pollution risk zone sites of the basin;

2)  Evaluate the volume of contamination by toxic substances; (effect on population by consumption of fishes etc..)

This pilot phase will define great actions in pollution control and countries building capacities.

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The progressive degradation of the Niger Basin environnement constitutes a real preoccupation for the NBA and its member countries. This is confirmed by a recent consulting mission of evaluation of water quality. In our ongoing process of Share Vision for a sustainable development, the monitoring of waters in termes of quality and quantity constitutes an important component of the NBA Master Plan that which will be finilised in the biginning of the year 2008. Some donors are fully interested by this issue.