Specification A – Models of Memory The multi-store model including concepts of encoding, capacity and duration . Strength and weaknesses of the model The working memory model including its strengths and weaknesses B – Memory in everyday life
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Bring in a photograph from your childhood (if you do not have one bring in an item from your childhood)
Draw a diagram to demonstrate the function of the Multi-Store Model of Memory
Lesson Three: Encoding, Capacity, and Duration
Think of an example of each type of memory:
Iconic, Echoic, and Haptic
By the end of this lesson, you will be able to:
Digit span technique
Can you describe the evidence for a distinction between STM and LTM?
A case study was carried out on Peter whose brain was damaged in a motorcycle accident. Psychologists tested how many numbers he could hold in his short-term memory. They did this by reading him lists of numbers and asking him to recall the numbers immediately in the right order. He could recall a maximum of two items. The psychologists found that his long-term memory was normal.
Information is registered through the sensory & attentional systems
The rehearsal loop allows info to be maintained in STM for longer periods
A limited amount of info is held for a short time in STM
Rehearsal allows info to be moved to LTM for long term storage
LTM has an unlimited capacity (as far as we know)
Your LTM can never be full!!!
Capacity in STM
*4 + 7= * 11 + 35= *6 + 3 + 4 – 2 x 30 =
Digit Span Technique: a way of measuring capacity in STM. Participants have to repeat back strings of digits (that increase in size) until they can no longer repeat the sequence of digits correctly
Serial Recall: a way of testing STM where participants are required to recall items in the correct order of presentation
This is an example of a serial recall task…
How far can you get before you start to forget the order of presentation?
George Miller (1956) – ‘The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two’
We can hold about 7 ‘items’ in out STM with a range between 5 – 9.
The capacity of STM: determined by the number of ‘chunks’ (7, + or – 2 chunks) rather than the number of individual letters or numbers.
Try and remember the numbers on the following page in the correct order…
See how meaningful pieces of information can stay in your STM longer than others?
You have rehearsed these before and in this way your LTM helps your STM
basic unit of information to be
stored in human STM.
What could affect the capacity of STM?
Influence of LTM: (Cowan, 2000)
Reading Aloud (Baddeley, 1999)
Pronunciation time (Hitch et al, 1984)
Individual differences (McLeod and Donnelly, 1993)
Using p12 in your textbook and the Baddeley et al. (1975) study in you course pack write down (on the same page as this study) how the above factors affect capacity.
Let’s try Peterson and Peterson’s (1959) experiment….
AIM: To find out how long items would remain in STM without rehearsal.
PROCEDURE: They presented participants with a consonant Trigram (3 consecutive letters that do not form a pronounceable unit, e.g. CKM, FNW)…..
Read through the Peterson & Peterson study in your course pack - what do you think may be potential methodological issues?
Ecological validity (artificiality of trigrams?)
Capacity or Duration? (displacement – remember the mental arithmetic?)
They might have mixed up the trigrams with those experienced in earlier trials (proactive interference)
Answer the following questions ..…
Digit span technique
Outline the key features of the multi-store model of memory. (6marks)
This straightforward question that asks you to demonstrate your knowledge about the multi-store model. Remember, this question requires AO1 skills and you are expected therefore to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding. You are not required to provide any analysis or evaluation of this model.
You must also remember that a model is an explanation or theory. It is not a study.
Take care to provide a balanced answer. If for example you spend too much time describing (rather than briefly outlining) the memory stores, you will not have enough time to do justice to the other aspects of the model.
The three separate stores (sensory, short-term and long-term) and their main characteristics in terms of encoding, capacity and duration.
The processes used to transfer information from one store to another (attention to pass information on from the sensory store and rehearsal to pass information from the STM to LTM). Recoding may also be needed between one store and the next.
Why information may be lost from each store (through decay from sensory, through decay and displacement from STM and through interference and retrieval failure from LTM).
This will provide a useful revision tool for you on the MSM but remember it’s the detail that’s marked so don’t spend too long making it pretty ……