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Specification A – Models of Memory The multi-store model including concepts of encoding, capacity and duration . Strength and weaknesses of the model The working memory model including its strengths and weaknesses B – Memory in everyday life

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Lesson Three: Encoding, Capacity, and Duration


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lesson three encoding capacity and duration

Specification

  • A – Models of Memory
  • The multi-store model including concepts of encoding, capacity and duration. Strength and weaknesses of the model
  • The working memory model including its strengths and weaknesses
  • B – Memory in everyday life
  • Eyewitness testimony and factors affecting the accuracy of EWT including anxiety and age of witness
  • Misleading information and the use of cognitive interview
  • Strategies for memory improvement

Homework

Bring in a photograph from your childhood (if you do not have one bring in an item from your childhood)

Draw a diagram to demonstrate the function of the Multi-Store Model of Memory

(6 marks)

Lesson Three: Encoding, Capacity, and Duration

Starter

Think of an example of each type of memory:

Iconic, Echoic, and Haptic

lesson objectives
Lesson Objectives:

By the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Apply the concepts of capacity and duration to memory stores
  • Understand the factors affecting capacity and duration and describe how they have been measured
key words to know by the end of the lesson
Key Words to know by the end of the lesson:

Capacity

Duration

Digit span technique

Serial recall

Rehearsal

Chunking

Trigrams

link to last lesson
Link to last lesson

Can you describe the evidence for a distinction between STM and LTM?

A case study was carried out on Peter whose brain was damaged in a motorcycle accident. Psychologists tested how many numbers he could hold in his short-term memory. They did this by reading him lists of numbers and asking him to recall the numbers immediately in the right order. He could recall a maximum of two items. The psychologists found that his long-term memory was normal.

eye on the exam
Eye on the exam
  • C) Identify one ethical issue associated with this case study of Peter. Suggest how psychologists could deal with this ethical issue. (4 marks)
    • Ethical issue
    • How psychologists could deal with this ethical issue
multistore model
Multistore Model

Information is registered through the sensory & attentional systems

The rehearsal loop allows info to be maintained in STM for longer periods

STM

LTM

A limited amount of info is held for a short time in STM

Rehearsal allows info to be moved to LTM for long term storage

capacity in ltm
Capacity in LTM

LTM has an unlimited capacity (as far as we know)

Your LTM can never be full!!!

Capacity in STM

  • Do the following mental arithmetic…

*4 + 7= * 11 + 35= *6 + 3 + 4 – 2 x 30 =

  • The problems that you may have had with the last one demonstrate the limited capacity of STM
  • As you try to work out the subsequent parts of the equation, you have to lose information to make room for new items
  • The size of the capacity of STM depends on how we measure it
key terms explained
Key Terms Explained:

Digit Span Technique: a way of measuring capacity in STM. Participants have to repeat back strings of digits (that increase in size) until they can no longer repeat the sequence of digits correctly

Serial Recall: a way of testing STM where participants are required to recall items in the correct order of presentation

try this
Try This!

This is an example of a serial recall task…

How far can you get before you start to forget the order of presentation?

George Miller (1956) – ‘The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two’

We can hold about 7 ‘items’ in out STM with a range between 5 – 9.

slide10

Items?

ITEMS?

what do we mean by items
What do we mean by items?!

Miller

The capacity of STM: determined by the number of ‘chunks’ (7, + or – 2 chunks) rather than the number of individual letters or numbers.

Try and remember the numbers on the following page in the correct order…

slide12
999

911

54321

118118

22002

34250

6168133

00353749721680

14177113504400

how did you do
How did you do?

See how meaningful pieces of information can stay in your STM longer than others?

You have rehearsed these before and in this way your LTM helps your STM

slide14
Miller
  • Semantic (meaningful chunks) which are recognisable, make recall easier.
  • So memory span can be increased by chunking!
  • Too vague? – how much information can me contained in a chunk?
slide15
Simon (1974)
  • Immediate serial recall of one-syllable, two-syllable, three-syllable words & two word and eight word phrases.
  • He found that the span in chunks was less with eight word phrases than with smaller chunks.
  • So the capacity depends on the nature of the material to be remembered.
  • Unlike a There is no way of defining a

basic unit of information to be

stored in human STM.

factor affecting capacity
Factor affecting capacity
  • Rhythmic grouping
question
Question…

What could affect the capacity of STM?

Influence of LTM: (Cowan, 2000)

Reading Aloud (Baddeley, 1999)

Pronunciation time (Hitch et al, 1984)

Individual differences (McLeod and Donnelly, 1993)

Using p12 in your textbook and the Baddeley et al. (1975) study in you course pack write down (on the same page as this study) how the above factors affect capacity.

duration in stm
Duration in STM

Let’s try Peterson and Peterson’s (1959) experiment….

AIM: To find out how long items would remain in STM without rehearsal.

PROCEDURE: They presented participants with a consonant Trigram (3 consecutive letters that do not form a pronounceable unit, e.g. CKM, FNW)…..

peterson peterson
Peterson & Peterson…..
  • FINDINGS: This procedure was repeated several times (trials) using different trigrams on each presentation.
  • Ps were able to recall:
  • 80% correctly after 3 second interval
  • Fewer than 10% correctly after 18 second interval
  • CONCLUSION: information disappears or decays very rapidly from STM when rehearsal is prevented
methodological issues
Methodological issues…

Read through the Peterson & Peterson study in your course pack - what do you think may be potential methodological issues?

Ecological validity (artificiality of trigrams?)

Capacity or Duration? (displacement – remember the mental arithmetic?)

They might have mixed up the trigrams with those experienced in earlier trials (proactive interference)

factors that affect the duration in stm
Factors that affect the duration in STM
  • Rehearsal
  • Intention to recall (Sebrechts et al., et al 1989)
  • Amount of information to be recalled (Murdock, 1961)
  • Underneath Peterson & Peterson study explain how the above factors can affect duration.
duration in ltm
Duration in LTM

Answer the following questions ..…

  • Write down (in as much detail as possible) your first memory
  • What factors could affect our ability to keep memories long-term?
duration in ltm27
Duration in LTM
  • Bahrick et al. (1975)
  • AIM:
  • PARTICIPANTS:
  • PROCEDURE:
  • Read through study in course pack.
factors affecting duration in ltm p 14 15
Factors affecting duration in LTM p 14-15
  • Experimental techniques
  • Depth of learning (Bahrick & Hall, 1991)
  • Pattern of learning
  • Nature of material to be learned (Conway et al., 1991)
  • Briefly explain these factors at the bottom of the study sheet.
check your key words
Check your key words:

Capacity

Duration

Digit span technique

Serial recall

Rehearsal

Chunking

Trigrams

plenary eye on the exam
Plenary - Eye on the exam
  • Using the list below, complete the table to distinguish between long-term memory and short term memory. (3 marks)
  • Unlimited
  • Up to a lifetime
  • 7 +/-/2 items
  • Mainly acoustic
  • Seconds
  • Mainly semantic
plenary eye on the exam31
Plenary - Eye on the exam

Outline the key features of the multi-store model of memory. (6marks)

This straightforward question that asks you to demonstrate your knowledge about the multi-store model. Remember, this question requires AO1 skills and you are expected therefore to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding. You are not required to provide any analysis or evaluation of this model.

You must also remember that a model is an explanation or theory. It is not a study.

Take care to provide a balanced answer. If for example you spend too much time describing (rather than briefly outlining) the memory stores, you will not have enough time to do justice to the other aspects of the model.

your answer should include an short account of
Your answer should include an short account of:

The three separate stores (sensory, short-term and long-term) and their main characteristics in terms of encoding, capacity and duration.

The processes used to transfer information from one store to another (attention to pass information on from the sensory store and rehearsal to pass information from the STM to LTM). Recoding may also be needed between one store and the next.

Why information may be lost from each store (through decay from sensory, through decay and displacement from STM and through interference and retrieval failure from LTM).

homework
Homework
  • Bring in a photograph from your childhood (if you do not have one bring in an item from your childhood)
  • Draw a diagram to demonstrate the function of the Multi-Store Model of Memory (6 marks).

This will provide a useful revision tool for you on the MSM but remember it’s the detail that’s marked so don’t spend too long making it pretty ……