APPROACHES TO ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY. AS PSYCHOLOGY. BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MODELS OF ABNORMALITY. Biological Model. Behavioural Model. Cognitive Model. Psychodynamic Model. Biological & Psychological Models of Abnormality. Biological Approach
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APPROACHES TO ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY AS PSYCHOLOGY
BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MODELS OF ABNORMALITY Biological Model Behavioural Model Cognitive Model Psychodynamic Model
Biological & Psychological Models of Abnormality • Biological Approach • Defines abnormality as disease or illness • Assumes organic basis – brain structure, functioning or biochemistry, possibly genes • No blame attached Biological Model • Ignores environmental influences and social conditions • Hands responsibility to the professionals • Leads to fear of mental illness and possible shunning of those diagnosed
Biological & Psychological Models of Abnormality • Assumes that disorders arise through conflicts between id or superego and a weakened ego (Freud) • Assumes childhood trauma is influential, or else the exhaustion of usefulness of defence mechanisms • The unconscious is key • Intuitive and experiential appeal Psychodynamic Model • Difficult to demonstrate empirically • Deterministic, places heavy burden on parents • Psychoanalysis and other “talking cures” are often expensive and long Freud
Biological & Psychological Models of Abnormality • Assumes abnormal behaviour is learnt • Only overt behaviour is relevant, whether adaptive or maladaptive • “Mental illness”/“Mental disorder” not meaningful • Classical Conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning theory • Practically – orientated therapies Behavioural Model • Behavioural methods can be forced on people • Focus on symptoms rather that causes • Risk of “ symptom substitution”
Biological & Psychological Models of Abnormality • Focuses on thinking processes which occur between a stimulus and a response (Beck, Ellis) • Assumes that distorted thinking is cause of emotional problems • Practical, problem – solving approach to therapy Cognitive Model • Are cognitive processes cause or effect of problems? • Emphasis on self-sufficiency can lead to blame and ignoring social conditions