Quiz for Wednesday • Questions 1-5 (Worth 10 Points) • List Each of the 5 major Old Testament Covenants and whether they are Conditional or Unconditional • N • M • L • D • N • Questions 7-13 (Worth 10 Points) • What are the 3 covenants in CT • Between whom were each made? • Extra Credit—Name a Covenant Theologian mentioned in our notes yesterday
Follow-Up to Yesterday’s Discussion • How should a believer relate to the Mosaic Law today? • Romans 7 • Galatians 3:1, 13, 19-29 • What is the teaching of the Wheat and Tares referring to in Matthew 13? • This is Jesus first teaching in parables (para + ballo)-to throw alongside. A parable is a throwing a known truth alongside and unknown truth • These parables seem to be teaching truth about the coming age (Church) and its consummation (v. 49). Thus the wheat and tares judgment could rightly be connected to the end of the tribulation. This would also lend support to a view that the Tribulation period is connected to our current age. • Matthew 13:17 also tells us that Jesus is revealing previously hidden truth that appears to parallel 1 Peter 1:10-12
Objectives for Day 8 • What are the changes in Progressive and Ultradispensationalism as compared with classical Dispensationalism? • Why do these difference matter?
Progressive Dispensationalism(see Dr. Stallard’s article) • Developed about 1986 with leaders being Craig Blaising and Darrell Bock-Dallas Theological Seminary. Robert Saucy for Talbot School of Theology in California joined them. • Dispensationalism, Israel and the Church by Blaising and Bock (1992) • Case for Progressive Dispensationalism by Saucy (1993) • Progressive Dispensationalism by Blaising and Bock
Traditional or Progressive Dispensationalism: Does It Matter? Mike Stallard Baptist Bible Seminary
PROGRESSIVE DISPENSATIONALISM • Started in the middle 1980s • Three major proponents: Darrell Bock Craig Blaising Robert Saucy
GENERAL THRUST OFPROGRESSIVE DISPENSATIONALISM • DESIRES TO SEE UNITY IN THE FLOW OF DISPENSATIONS • DIPS MORE OFTEN INTO THE USE OF HIGHER CRITICAL METHODS, i.e. Literary Structure, Midrash, etc. • DESIRES A HALF-WAY HOUSE BETWEEN DISPENSATIONAL AND NON-DISPENSATIONAL THEOLOGY
Traditional dispensationalists do a better job in the OT. Covenant theology does a better job in the NT. Progressives generally believe:
The church age as a dispensation is best seen as a harmonious continuation in succession of the entire sequence of dispensations in God’s plan rather than as a parenthesis in God’s plan for Israel. The present dispensation is a parenthesis with respect to God’s dealing with Israel (explains the delay in His dealing with that nation) but is a harmonious continuation of God’s plan with respect to the plan of the ages. PD TD #1
PD VIEW OF DISPENSATIONS PROMISE LAW CHURCH KINGDOM ONE TRACK/UNBROKEN PROGRESSION/UNITY
PROMISE LAW KINGDOM CHURCH TD VIEW OF DISPENSATIONS CHURCH AGE IS A PARENTHESIS IN GOD’S PLAN WITH ISRAEL UNITY IN GOD’S OVERALL MULTI-FACETED PLAN
Rejection of any essential core beliefs to dispensationalism (no sine qua non) – only a list of hermeneutical and theological concerns Acceptance of a core set of beliefs that is generally true of all dispensationalists of all times, i.e., there is a common thread to the tradition that is rather substantial PD TD #2
List of Concerns: Premillennialism Pretribulationalism Universal Church Future for Israel Etc. List of Essentials: Consistent literal interpretation Distinction between Israel and the Church Doxological purpose for biblical history PD TD
La Future D’Israel The Principle of Literalism The Principle of Diversity of Classes and Privileges in the Entire Body of the Redeemed The Literal Value of the Word Day in Prophecy Dispensationalism Today Consistent literal interpretation Distinction between Israel and the Church Doxological purpose for biblical history Emile Guers 1856 Charles Ryrie 1965
Emphasizes Discontinuity in the History of Dispensa-tionalism Emphasizes Continuity in the History of Dispensa-tionalism PD TD
Rejection of literal interpretation as a major issue in the debate between covenant theology and dispensationalism Acceptance of literal interpretation as a major issue in the debate between covenant theology and dispensationalism PD TD #3
Literal interpretation has always been a marked feature of Premillennialism; in Dispensationalism it has been carried to an extreme. We have seen that this literalism found its most thoroughgoing expression in the claim that Israel must mean Israel, and that the Church was a mystery, unknown to the prophets and first made known to the apostle Paul. OSWALD T. ALLIS(Amillennialist)
Now if the principle of interpretation is adopted that Israelalways means Israel, that it does not mean the Church, then it follows of necessity that practically all of our information regarding the millennium will concern a Jewish or Israelitish age. OSWALD T. ALLIS(Amillennialist)
Historical distinction between Israel and the Church accepted but rejection of transcendental (heavenly/earthly) distinction between them Acceptance of both a historical distinction and some measure of heavenly/earthly dichotomy between Israel and the Church PD TD #4
One people of God (soteriological – similar to covenant theology); God’s plan is a single track One people of God soteriologically, but two peoples of God (or programs of God) historically and teleologically (God’s purposes); God’s plan is multi-faceted which better gives glory to Him PD TD #5
THE FOCUS ON INDIVIDUAL REDEMPTION IN COVENANT THEOLOGY OT Covenant of Grace: Focus On Individual Redemption NT Covenant of Works: Adam in the Garden THE FALL GENESIS 3 COMMUNITY AND NATIONAL PROMISES TO ISRAEL IGNORED OR DOWNPLAYED INDIVIDUAL REDEMPTION IN THE CHURCH EMPHASIZED THE NEW READ BACK INTO THE OLD
THE FOCUS ON THE GLORY OF GOD IN DISPENSATIONALISM CREATION REDEMPTION Rapture of theChurch (I Thess. 4:13-18) Creation of theChurch (Acts 2) God’s Plan for Angels Creation of Israel (Gen. 11-12ff) Restoration of Israel (Amos 9, Rom. 11) God’s Plan for the Salvation of Individual Men Creation of theNations (Gen. 10) Judgment of theNations (Isa. 2, Matt. 25) Creation of theWorld (Gen. 1) Redemption ofCreation (Rom. 8:19-22, Rev. 21) God’s Plan for the Lost
Many OT and NT passages are integrated and harmonized using a complementary hermeneutic. This leads to an “already-not yet” paradigm for interpretation. While such integration is possible, it does not override the distinction between Israel and the Church and it does not apply to the fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant. PD TD #6
COMPLEMENTARY HERMENEUTICS This concept refers to the fact that some OT promises can be expanded by the NT. However, this expansion is never viewed as replacing or undoing the implications of that OT promise to its original audience, Israel. For example, the Church’s participation in the blessings of the New Covenant taught in the NT can add the Church to the list of recipients of the New Covenant promises made in the OT.
COMPLEMENTARY HERMENEUTICS However, such participation does not rule out the future fulfillment of the OT New Covenant promises to Israel at the beginning of the Millennium. Thus, the promise can have a coinciding or overlapping fulfillment through NT expansions of the promise. Usually the Church is being added to some form of blessing in the present age while Israel still awaits its fulfillment in the age to come. This concept helps form the basis of an “already, not yet” approach to various texts in the Bible.
NT CHURCH The Inauguration of the Kingdom (Already...) THE MILLENNIAL KINGDOM The Consummation of the Kingdom (...Not Yet) OT ISRAEL THE KINGDOM OF GOD IN GEORGE LADD
NT CHURCH The Inauguration of the Kingdom (Already...) THE MILLENNIAL KINGDOM The Consummation of the Kingdom (...Not Yet) OT ISRAEL THE KINGDOM OF GOD IN PROGRESSIVE DISPENSATIONALISM Two differences with Ladd: Ladd starts the kingdom in the Gospels and has no concrete future for Israel.
Believes that the NT writers are doing midrash when they write (e.g., Peter’s sermon in Acts 2) Believes that extra-biblical forms such as midrash, while having a place in the discussion of backgrounds, can not be used to unravel the literal interpretation or the clarity of the Bible. PD TD #7
A Sample of Integration in PD OT NT 2 Samuel 7 7:12 “I will raise up your descendant after you . . .” Raise up in history Luke-Acts Acts 2:24 “God raised Him (Jesus) up again” Raise from dead Promise to David fulfilled in Acts 1-2 at Ascension of Christ: Messianic Kingdom starts in Acts 1-2
A Sample of Integration in TD OT NT Luke-Acts Luke 19:11ff Parable of Delay Jesus receives the kingdom Rev. 19 Jesus Christ comes back and destroys Antichrist Daniel 7:13-14 The Son of Man comes to the Ancient of Days to receive a kingdom at the destruction of Antichrist The Messianic (Davidic) kingdom begins at the Second Coming of Christ when Antichrist is destroyed.
The Messianic Kingdom started at the Ascension (Acts 1-2). The Messianic Kingdom will start at the Second Coming (Dan. 7, Rev. 19). PD TD #8
Kingdom rule in the present age should be emphasized in order to pursue the rebuilding of social structures according to the ways of Christ. Christ’s headship of the Church and His general sovereignty (reigning) in the world at large is recognized but it is denied that this is fulfillment of Davidic rule promised in the OT. Furthermore, no Davidic “kingdom authority” is needed to right injustices and demonstrate love for people in social action. PD TD #9
MAJESTYJack Hayford Majesty, worship His majesty Unto Jesus be all glory, honor, and praise Majesty, kingdom authority Flow from His throne unto His own His anthem raise. So exalt, lift up on high the name of Jesus Magnify, come glorify Christ Jesus the King Majesty, worship His majesty Jesus who died, now glorified, King of all kings.
The pre-trib rapture of the Church is not a significant doctrine The pre-trib rapture is a significant doctrine since it has a relationship to the distinction between Israel and the Church PD #10 TD
Seeks theological harmony with covenant theology. Seeks no harmony with covenant theology other than spiritual kinship in Christ. PD TD #11
Questions • Is PD the “dominion theology wing” of dispensationalism? • Is PD the “postmodern wing” of dispensationalism?
Questions • Is PD (along with the rest of evangelicalism) leading to a technical elitism for interpreting the Bible? • Is PD leading to an abandonment of a firm belief in the cessation of sign gifts?
7 Tenets of Progressive Dispensationalism according to Ryre • Kingdom of God is the unifying them of biblical history—”church • Within Biblical history there are 4 dispensational eras • Christ has already inaugurated the Davidic reign in heaven at the right hand of the father (Hebrews 10:11-18) • New Covenant has already been inaugurated, though its blessings are not yet fully realized until the millennium.
7 Tenets of Progressive Dispensationalism according to Ryre • Concept of Church being completely distinct from Israel as a mystery not revealed in OT needs to be revisited • A complementary hermeneutic must be used alongside a literal hermeneutic • The one divine holistic redemption encompasses all people and areas of human life-personal, societal, cultural and political
Ultradispensationalistschapter 11 in Ryrie • This group is not very common so little time will be devoted to covering their view. • Two school of thought-moderate and extreme ultra dispensationalists • Founder-Ethelbert W. Bullinger (1837-1913)-Kings College in London-Anglican • Also believed in extinction of the soul between death and resurrection • Many of his followers were annihilationists
REVIEW FOR FINAL EXAM • What are the 3 Major Tenets (Sine Qua Non) of Dispensationalism • Consistent Literal Hermeneutic • Distinction between Israel and the Church • Focus on the Glory of God
REVIEW FOR FINAL • Key figures of Dispensationalism JN Darby Brookes Guers ScofieldGaebelein Chafer (Dallas Theological Seminary-flagship!) Walvoord (DTS) Pentecost & Ryrie (DTS) McClain (Grace Seminary)
REVIEW FOR FINAL • CHURCH DOES NOT EQUAL ISRAEL: ROMANS 11 AND REVELATION 21
REVIEW FOR FINAL (Essay) • How do Romans 11 and Revelation 21 demonstrate that Israel and the church are distinct from one another forever. • What insights or observations have you made from Dr. Kevin Bauder’s messages • What areas of DT will be the most beneficial to you in future ministry, study and teaching. • To whom was the New Covenant given and explain your current understanding of the church’s relationship to the New Covenant
REVIEW FOR FINAL What are the 5 main views of the rapture AND give a brief description of each one • Pre-Tribulational Rapture • Post-Tribulational Rapture • Partial Rapture • Mid-Tribulational Rapture • Pre-Wrath Rapture
REVIEW FOR FINAL • To what time period does Matthew 24 and 25 refer. • Explain Daniel’s 70 weeks prophecy from Daniel 9:24-27 • List 3 of the 5 main tenets of Progressive Dispensationalism and give a brief description of each • List the 5 main covenants in the Bible including the Land Covenant but excluding the Edenic/Adamic Covenant • What are the 3 Covenants in CT and share the parties involved in each covenant