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Integrating Concepts in Biology. PowerPoint Slides for Chapter 8: Evolution of Organisms Section 8.1: What causes individual variation?. by A. Malcolm Campbell, Laurie J. Heyer, and Chris Paradise. Relationship between height of parents and offspring. slope of one . best-fit line .

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slide1

Integrating Concepts in Biology

PowerPoint Slides for Chapter 8:

Evolution of Organisms

Section 8.1: What causes individual variation?

by

A. Malcolm Campbell, Laurie J. Heyer, and Chris Paradise

slide2

Relationship between height of parents and offspring

slope of one

best-fit line

Size of circles proportional to the number of comparisons

Figure 8.1

slide5

BME 8.1: How does linear regression work?

Consider:

rm+sb=t

um+vb=w

Solve for m and b:

m=(sw-tv)/(su-rv)

b=(tu-rw)/(su-rv)

slide6

BME 8.1: How does linear regression work?

Σ(xi2) * m + Σ(xi) * b = Σ(xi * yi)

Σ(xi) * m + n*b = Σ(yi)

Consider:

rm+sb=t

um+vb=w

Solve for m:

m=(sw-tv)/(su-rv)

slide7

BME 8.1: How does linear regression work?

Σ(xi2) * m + Σ(xi) * b = Σ(xi * yi)

Σ(xi) * m + n*b = Σ(yi)

Consider:

rm+sb=t

um+vb=w

Solve for m:

m=(sw-tv)/(su-rv)

slide8

BME 8.1: How does linear regression work?

Σ(xi2) * m + Σ(xi) * b = Σ(xi * yi)

Σ(xi) * m + n*b = Σ(yi)

Consider:

rm+sb=t

um+vb=w

Solve for m:

m=(sw-tv)/(su-rv)

Σ(xi2)

Σ(xi)

Excel formula for m:

=((F2*G3)-(G2*F3))/((F2*E3)-(E2*F3))

=[(Σ(xi)*Σ(yi)) – (Σ(xi*yi)*(n)] / [(Σ(xi)*Σ(xi)) – (Σ(xi2)*(n))]

= ((s * w) – (t * v)) / ((s * u) – (r * v))

slide9

BME 8.1: How does linear regression work?

Σ(xi2) * m + Σ(xi) * b = Σ(xi * yi)

Σ(xi) * m + n*b = Σ(yi)

Consider:

rm+sb=t

um+vb=w

Solve for b:

b=(tu-rw)/(su-rv)

Σ(xi2)

Σ(xi)

Excel formula for b:

=((G2*E3)-(E2*G3))/((F2*E3)-(E2*F3))

=[((Σ(xi*yi)*Σ(xi)) – (Σ(xi2)*Σ(yi)] / [(Σ(xi)*Σ(xi)) – (Σ(xi2)*(n))]

slide11

Portions of the β and α adducin subunit DNA sequences and corresponding amino acid sequence

letters correspond to different amino acids

position along the protein

Figure 8.3

slide12

Mean blood pressures for rats in two colonies

αY/αY ; βR/βR

αF/αF ; β_/β_

Figure 8.2

slide13

Systolic BPs of the 3 combinations of 2 versions of the β adducin gene in rats from the low BP colony

Q and R refer to the amino acid at position 529 of β subunit

Figure 8.4

slide14

BP of 9 combinations of two versions of the α and β adducin genes in rats after two generations of breeding low and high blood pressure rats together.

BP of high BP parental strain

BP of low BP parental strain

Figure 8.5

slide15

Variation of combinations of the two adducin genes

All parents are heterozygous

Table 8.1

slide16

Zinc and copper contamination and pH in soils surrounding a smelting operation in Pennsylvania

Table 8.2

slide17

Stomata and hair densities of sandwort collected at two times and grown in controlled conditions

What do the results of the common garden experiment show?

Figure 8.6

slide18

Stomata and hair densities of honeysuckle collected at two times and grown in controlled conditions

What do the results of the common garden experiment show?

Figure 8.6

slide19

Responses of the acorn barnacle (Chthamalus anisopoma) to the snail predator (Acanthina).

bent and cone shell shapes

Spine used to pry barnacles

Figure 8.7

slide20

Responses of the acorn barnacle (Chthamalus anisopoma) to the snail predator (Acanthina).

results of predator exclusion experiment

Figure 8.7

slide21

Responses of the acorn barnacle (Chthamalus anisopoma) to the snail predator (Acanthina).

without predator

Survival of barnacles

with predator

Figure 8.7

slide22

Integrating Concepts in Biology

PowerPoint Slides for Chapter 8:

Evolution of Organisms

Section 8.2: How does selection act on individuals with variable characteristics?

by

A. Malcolm Campbell, Laurie J. Heyer, and Chris Paradise

slide23

Poecilia reticulata

http://www.erdingtonaquatics.com/guppies.html

slide25

Mean number of predator inspections by bright and drab male guppies

Is there an effect of brightness or predation?

Figure 8.9

slide26

Effects of presence of female and male color on predator inspection behavior

  • Predator inspections initiated by bright or drab males when females either present or absent.
  • Relationship between boldness and brightness of males.
  • Relationship between minimum distance of an approaching predator and brightness of males.

Figure 8.10

slide28

BME 8.2: Do females really prefer bold males?

When a predator was present, 14 / 20 female guppies preferred the bright male to the drab male when the bright male was the bold one

16 / 20 preferred the drab male to the bright male when the drab male was the bold one.

slide29

BME 8.2: Do females really prefer bold males?

  • p-value of preference test = probability of getting at least the observed number of guppies choosing one color and behavior combination.
  • Here, the p-value = probability of at least 14 of 20 guppies making this choice.
  • BME IQ 8.2a leads to estimate of this probability.
  • In BME IQ 8.2e, you computed the probability of exactly 14 heads in 20 tosses of a fair coin
  • =(1/2)20 x number of arrangements in which there are exactly 14 heads (20 choose 14).
  • =38,760 x (1/2)20 = 0.037.
  • Probability of at least 14 heads in 20 tosses, repeat for situations of 15 – 20 heads, and sum.
  • http://stattrek.com/online-calculator/binomial.aspx
slide30

Summary of guppy experiments

  • Bold males selected against in first experiment.
  • In presence of females, bright more likely than drab guppies to swim towards, and inspect, potential predators.
  • Bright guppies more likely to flee before predator gets too close.
  • Females preferred to mate w/ bold males when predator was nearby and bright males when predator absent; appearance = boldness?
  • Bold males inspections may signal to predator that it has been spotted. Bold individuals more aware?
  • Bold, healthy males may contribute more advantageous genes.
  • Phenotypes remain in population when providing advantage to possessor; phenotypes selected against reduce ability of individual to survive or reproduce.
slide31

Spatial pattern of flower color along two transects that cut through a ravine of desert snow (Linanthus parryae)

Position of ravine dividing populations

How does the frequency of the white allele change across the ravine?

Figure 8.12

slide32

Estimates of frequencies for four allozymes along each transect

How does the spatial pattern in flower color compare to the allele frequencies?

Figure 8.12

slide33

Estimates of frequencies for four allozymes along each transect

No spatial pattern evident in these allozymes – note the slope of each line

Figure 8.12

slide34

Spatial pattern of flower color along two transects that cut through a ravine, and estimates of frequencies for four allozymes along each

Position of ravine dividing populations

Figure 8.12

slide35

Mean seed production (± 1 s.e.) for blue- and white-flowered desert snow plants from transplant plots

Do you detect evidence for natural selection?

blue side white side

Figure 8.13

slide36

Variation in plant cover on two sides of a ravine where desert snow grows

Asterisks indicate that the cover for a species was statistically different on the two sides.

What do the patterns suggest to you?

Figure 8.14

slide37

Differences in soil composition along a transect that crossed the ravine

Asterisks indicate that the variable was statistically different on the two sides.

What do the patterns suggest to you?

Figure 8.14

slide38

Integrating Concepts in Biology

Chapter 8: Evolution of Organisms

Section 8.3: Can you observe descent with modification?

slide39

Evolutionary tree of major groups of plant species.

To what group of species are flowering plants most closely related?

The species that existed at branch point “b” was the common ancestor of what groups of species?

Figure 8.15

slide40

Morphology and pollen packet placement of orchids

The pollen packet lies at the end of the erect anther.

Orchid flowers often have a lip

Figure 8.16

slide41

Meliorchiscaribea. This orchid

pollinarium, carried by a worker stingless bee, is preserved in amber and represents the first definitive fossil record for the family Orchidaceae. (scale bar, 1,000 mm).

http://www.anu.edu.au/BoZo/orchid_pollination/

slide45

Phenotypic characters for several orchid genera.

Phenotypes denoted by letters

Table 8.3

slide46

Phenotypic characters for several orchid genera.

Particular form of a phenotype coded as a number

Table 8.3

slide48

Figure BME 8.3.1 Three rooted trees (b, c, d) consistent with the same unrooted tree (a).

Unrooted tree

Rooted trees

slide49

Figure BME 8.3.1 Three rooted trees (b, c, d) consistent with the same unrooted tree (a).

Tree b is rooted at point B, species 1 (blue)

slide50

Figure BME 8.3.1 Three rooted trees (b, c, d) consistent with the same unrooted tree (a).

Tree c is rooted at point C

slide51

Figure BME 8.3.1 Three rooted trees (b, c, d) consistent with the same unrooted tree (a).

Tree d is rooted at point D, species 3 (yellow)

slide53

BME 8.3 Best unrooted trees for 5 species

1

1

1

3

4

3

5

4

5

2

2

2

4

3

5

Required single mutation for b, k, and l occurs here

slide55

BME 8.3 Best unrooted trees for 5 species

Only tree #1 is optimal for j

1

1

1

4

3

3

5

5

4

2

2

2

5

3

4

slide57

Evolutionary tree of the orchid family

End of Cretaceous, 65 MYA

Arrow heads indicate estimated ages of small subfamilies, A, B, and C

Estimate of earliest existence of orchids, range can be determined from two scales, top and bottom

Figure 8.17

slide58

Evolutionary tree of the orchid family

Oldest age estimated from a fossil orchid, 20 MYA

Fossil orchid, M. caribea, showing range of estimated fossil dates

Youngest age estimated from a fossil orchid, 15 MYA

Figure 8.17

slide59

Evolutionary tree of the orchid family

Size of shaded area of a subfamily proportional to number of species in subfamily. E is most diverse

Small black scale bar represents thickness of 50 genera of orchids

Figure 8.17

slide60

Microhabitats of the forest canopy and the distribution of orchid species (open bars) and numbers of individuals (black bars) in the microhabitats.

Figure 8.18

slide61

Frequency distributions of plants living on trees (maroon) and on the ground (gold)

Orchids

Non-orchid plants

Figure 8.19

slide62

Mean number of pollinators / species for orchids in five subfamilies

Subfamilies same as in 8.17, D and E most diverse (# of species above bar)

Figure 8.20

slide63

Evolutionary relationships among birds, bats, and insects

Simplified cartoon of evolutionary relationships. Real tree is much more complex.

Figure 8.21

slide64

Evolutionary tree showing relationship among several vertebrates

Evolution of wings (W) occurred twice

Figure 8.22

slide65

The fossil bat Icaronycteris index and skeleton from a living species

Bones trapped in rock

Skeleton from living species

Figure 8.23

slide66

Elongated fifth digit (metacarpal bone) of bats compared to a combined index of body size for living and fossil bats

Fossil bats

Living bats

Figure 8.24

slide67

Two hypotheses for selection of long digits

bat- or squirrel-size creature that lived in Mongolia about 125 million years ago

http://palaeosbios.blogspot.com/2006/12/mammals-linked-to-earlier-flight.html

What are they?

Gliding hypothesis

Jumping hypothesis

In neither case did they have muscles or behavior necessary for true flight

slide68

Percentage of growing 3rd -5th forelimb digits composed of proliferating and differentiating / elongating cells in mice and bats

Figure 8.25

slide69

Percentage of cells in elongation and differentiation zone of metacarpals vs. length of the bat 5th metacarpal as development proceeds.

22

Developmental stages

21

20

18

19

Figure 8.26

slide71

Integrating Concepts in Biology

Chapter 8:

Evolution of Organisms

Section 8.4 Can you observe evolution in your lifetime?

by

A. Malcolm Campbell, Laurie J. Heyer, and Chris Paradise

slide72

DDT and mosquitoes

DDT

Incidence of malaria in Italy after a DDT spray campaign began

Anopheles gambiae female taking a blood meal.

Figure 8.27

slide73

Relationship between incidence of malaria and DDT use in India, 1969-77

What do you conclude from what occurred in India?

Figure 8.28

slide74

Malaria Transmission

MAlariaRisk in Africa

slide75

Mortality of two populations of Anopheles gambiae when exposed to a series of DDT concentrations

Are Anopheles gambiae from Gambia more susceptible to DDT than those from Tanzania?

Table 8.4

slide76

Results from extraction of GST from two populations of Anopheles gambiae

Mass of each variant of GST

What is the significance of different amounts and activities of enzyme?

Figure 8.29

slide77

Time in minutes to 50 and 90% mortality of A. gambiaewhen exposed to permethrin and DDT

Permethrin-resistant population somewhat resistant to DDT

Table 8.5

slide78

When is there too much of a good thing? When chemicals are overused

ELSI Integrating Questions

How do the proper and improper uses of pesticides and antibiotics inhibit or facilitate the evolution of resistance?

What are the costs and benefits to society and ecological systems of pesticide use?

What are the ethical and social considerations to be made when choosing whether to apply a pesticide or prescribe an antibiotic?

ELSI 8.1