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Network. coordinated by W. Scandale and F. Zimmermann. H igh Energy H igh Intensity H adron Beams. http://care-hhh.web.cern.ch/care-hhh/. outline. HHH overview activities in 2008 LHC upgrade scenarios HHH workshops & results deliverables & milestones recent publications

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h igh energy h igh intensity h adron beams

coordinated by W. Scandale and F. Zimmermann

High EnergyHigh IntensityHadron Beams


HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN,17.09. 2008


HHH overview

activities in 2008

LHC upgrade scenarios

HHH workshops & results

deliverables & milestones

recent publications

HHH exchanges & results

crystal-collimation studies

two HHH highlights

care hhh network
CARE-HHH network

Coordinate and integrate the activities of the accelerator and particle physics communities in a worldwide context, towards achieving superior High-Energy High-Intensity Hadron Beam facilities for Europe

  • road map for the upgrade of the European accelerator infrastructure (LHC and GSI accelerator complex)
  • coordinate activities and foster future collaborations
  • dissemination and outreach

WP1: Advancements in Accelerator Magnet Technologies (AMT)

WP2: Novel Methods for Accelerator Beam Instrumentation (ABI)

WP3: Accelerator Physics and synchrotron Design (APD)

Participating institutes:


Associated institutes:


Additional collaborations: Texas A&M U., U. Geneva, U. Bologna

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

activities in 2008
activities in 2008
  • past & planned events:
  • 3 main workshops (one per WP) [1 DONE, other 2 in November]
  • 1 joint HHH/US-LARP/BNL workshop on crab cavities
  • 4 topical HHH workshops (for APD): crab cavities, long-range beam-beam effects & beam-beam compensation, crystal collimation, electron cloud [2 DONE]
  • participation in other international workshops & events:
    • JPS meeting, Osaka, March 2008, invited presentation on LHC and the LHC upgrade [DONE]
    • ICFA Beam Dynamics Mini-Workshop on deflecting/crabbing cavity applications in accelerators, Shanghai April 2008; Yi-Peng Sun,HHH fellow at CERN, presented the LHC crab cavity effort with HHH support [DONE]
    • INFN Group-1 meeting in Pisa, September 2008
    • EPAC08, HB2008,…
    • International workshop on Multipactor, Corona and Passive Intermodulation, "Mulcopim", Valencia September 2008, organized by ESA; the workshop will address electron-cloud effects and their prevention in spacecrafts and accelerators; HHH will send 3 persons
    • Channeling 2008, Erice, November 2008. The workshop will address crystal-particle interaction phenomena

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

activities in 2008 cont d
activities in 2008 cont’d
    • dissemination and outreach:
  • various events/workshops organized by/with physicists from LHC experiments, e.g.
    • presentation for LHCb Upgrade working group August 2008;
    • participation in, and presentation at, “Physics at CMS” workshop, Split 25 Sept.-3 Oct. 2008;
    • involvement of experiments’ representatives in HHH workshops
  • contributions to EPAC’08, HB2008, and other events; seminars at EU universities
  • further extensions of SC & accelerator physics codes databases
  • maintenance and development of HHH web sites
  • exchanges and education:
  • visits of CERN accelerator physicists to other labs
  • support of EU or non-EU (US, J, Russia,...) scientists for visits to CERN
  • support of one PhD student and of two summer students working for the SC database

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

LHC upgrade stages

“phase-1” 2013:

new triplets, D1, TAS, b*=0.25 m in IP1 & 5,

reliable LHC operation at ~2-3x luminosity;

beam from new Linac4

“phase-2” 2017:

target luminosity 10x nominal,

possibly Nb3Sn triplet & b*~0.15 m

complementary measures 2010-2017:

e.g. long-range beam-beam compensation, crab cavities,

new/upgraded injectors, advanced collimators, lower emittance,

coherent e- cooling??, e- lenses??

longer term (2020?): energy upgrade, LHeC,…

+ injector


phase-2 might be just phase-1 plus complementary measures

lhc upgrade paths
LHC upgrade paths


early separation (ES)

full crab crossing


stronger triplet magnets

stronger triplet magnets

D0 dipole


crab cavity


crab cavity

larger-aperture triplet magnets

large Piwinski

angle (LPA)



reviewed by LHCC,

1 July 2008

HHH, CARE’07, CERN, October 29-31, 2007

large Piwinski angle (LPA)

full crab crossing (FCC)

early separation (ES)

experimenters choice lhcc july 2008
experimenters’ choice(LHCC July 2008)
  • no accelerator components inside detector
  • lowest possible event pile up
  • possibility of easy luminosity levelling
  • → full crab crossing upgrade


HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

present and future lhc injectors
present and future LHC injectors

Proton flux / Beam power



50 MeV

160 MeV



1.4 GeV

4 GeV

(LP)SPL: (Low Power) Superconducting Proton Linac (4-5 GeV)

PS2: High Energy PS

(~ 5 to 50 GeV – 0.3 Hz)

SPS+: Superconducting SPS

(50 to1000 GeV)

SLHC: “Superluminosity” LHC

(up to 1035 cm-2s-1)

DLHC: “Double energy” LHC

(1 to ~14 TeV)


26 GeV


50 GeV

Output energy



450 GeV

1 TeV




7 TeV

~ 14 TeV

Roland Garoby, LHCC 1July ‘08

layout of the new injectors
layout of the new injectors






R. Garoby, CARE-HHH BEAM07, October’07; L. Evans, LHCC, 20 Feb ‘08

forecast peak integrated luminosity evolution
forecast peak & integrated luminosity evolution

New injectors + IR upgrade phase 2

ATLAS will need ~18 months shutdown

Goal for ATLAS Upgrade:

3000 fb-1 recorded

cope with ~400 pile-up events each BC

Collimation phase 2

Linac4 + IR upgrade phase 1

M. Nessi, CARE-HHH LHC crab-cavity validation mini-workshop August 2008, R. Garoby, LHCC July 08

lower beam emittance
  • can compensate for luminosity loss due to
  • large crossing angle [R. Garoby]
  • may be provided by new injectors
  • and/or by “coherent e- cooling” [V. Litvinenko]


damping times in hours:

CeC proof-of-



at RHIC in


promise of

1-hr damping

time at 7 TeV!

strategy for “phase 2”
  • pursue vigorous R&D program for larger-aperture higher-field magnets
  • parallel crab-cavity development and testing
  • design, production & installation of wire compensator already in phase-0
  • exploration of complementary schemes, like crab waist, coherent e-cooling, e-lenses, crystal collimation; integrate them into upgrade plan when they become available
  • establish generation method long flat bunches
  • identify main limitations of the real LHC
  • LHC machine studies to explore upgrade scenarios, e.g. large Piwinski angle
  • close coordination with detector upgrades
workshops since care07
workshops since CARE07
  • 19-20 November: CARE-HHH-AMT workshop onHeat Generation and Heat Transfer in Superconducting Magnets (THERMOMAG’07), Paris, 2 days (about 70 participants)
    • minimizing and evacuating heat in the next generation of superconducting magnets for high intensity particle accelerators, such as the IR magnet for the LHC luminosity upgrade and the fast cycling magnets for FAIR and for the LHC injector chain upgrade;
    • identify the state of the art on
      • (1) cooling techniques (fluids and regimes),
      • (2) heat transfer mechanisms,
      • (3) modeling of heat transfer from coils to cooling system,
      • (4) heat transfer experiments; identify a common set of thermal design criteria


HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

workshops since care071
workshops since CARE07
  • 5th CARE-HHH-ABIworkshop on Schottky, Tune and Chromaticity Diagnostic (with real time feedback)(about 30 participants),  Chamonix, France, 11 - 13 December 2007, supported by HHH
  • Joint BNL/CARE-HHH/US-LARPworkshop on LHC crab cavities (LHC-CC08), BNL, 25-26 February 2008 (about 30 participants) - 3 persons attended with HHH support
  • http://adweb.desy.de/mdi/CARE/chamonix/abi_workshop_2007.htm
  • results on online tune & chromaticity measurements
  • preparation for an overall orbit, tune & chromaticity control at LHC
  • deformation of Schottky sidebands due to space charge
  • http://prst-ab.aps.org/pdf/PRSTAB/v11/i7/e074202


HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

amt workshop
AMT workshop
  • 19-23 May: CARE-HHH-AMT workshop onAccelerator Magnets, Superconductor, Design and Optimization (WAMSDO’08), CERN, 5 days, 107 participants
  • Main topics:
    • summary of magnet targets and specifications for future accelerators and accelerator upgrades, in particular for the LHC upgrade;
    • advances on low- and high-Tcs.c. materials and cables, with special attention to progress in Nb3Sn, low-loss Nb-Ti and coated conductors;
    • design, optimization and R&D for s.c. magnets and other devices, in particular the high field dipoles and quadrupoles for the LHC IR and fast cycled synchrotron magnets.


HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

Deflecting Cavity Workshop

ICFA Beam Dynamics Mini-Workshop on Deflecting/Crabbing Cavity Applications in Accelerators

April 23-25, 2008 at SINAP, Shanghai

  • Topics:
  • deflecting/crabbing cavity R&D in the applications of:
  • high energy colliders (ILC, LHC, KEK-B, CLIC, …)
  • generation of short x-ray pulse in synchrotron light sources
  • beam manipulations, emittance exchanges and diagnostics


HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

HHH workshop series summer and fall 2008

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

crab cavity motivation

“Piwinski angle”


luminosity reduction factor

without crab cavity


effective beam

size s→s/Rf

“LPA” upgrade



care hhh lhc crab cavity validation mini workshop 21 august 2008



CARE-HHHLHC Crab Cavity Validation Mini-Workshop, 21 August 2008

first use in operating

ring collider 2007

crabbed beams in KEKB

Bob Palmer

  • KEKB experience
  • R&D plan
  • phased approach:
  • (1) prototype
  • (2) “global” crab cavity test in IR4,
  • (3) “local” crab cavities in IR1 & 5
  • EuCARD, US-LARP & international collaboration


global crab


local crab

global & local schemes considered for LHC

crab-cavity prototype tentative schedule


T. Linnecar, HHH Crab-Cavity Validation Workshop

HHH, CARE’07, CERN, October 29-31, 2007

long-range beam-beam compensation

LR beam-beam in LHC



in the SPS

G. Sterbini, J.-P. Koutchouk U. Dorda, et al, SPS MD August 2008

inverse relative loss at various tunes



distance [mm]

(s~1.3 mm)

high-Tc s.c. compensator

A.Ballarino, CARE-HHH

mini-workshop, 28 August 2008

MgB2 conductor


two-stage pulse tube cryocooler

Ex-situ, 1.1 mm 

MgB2 wire (Columbus)

Ic (A)

cryostat around

cold beam pipe

B (T)

electron lens

use of e-lens as tune-spread compressor improves

simulated LHC beam lifetime (phase to IP important)




on beam-beam


28 August 2008


Mulcopim 2008

international workshop on Multipactor,Corona,&Passive Intermodulation Valencia, 24-26 Sept.’08, organized by European Space Agency (ESA)

  • meeting place for researchers, designers, test engineers and users of any space high-power RF hardware
  • design and testing of high power RF hardware for the prevention of RF breakdown (Multipactor and Corona) and Passive Intermodulation
  • main topics:


•  high power RF hardware design •  innovative testing techniques (facilities, detection methods, etc...) •  theoretical investigations in the multipactor physics •  surface coating & secondary emission: measurements and theory •  simulation and prediction tools •  multicarrier operation •  electron cloud effects •  multipactor in particle accelerators •  power and frequency trends •  harmonisation and standardisation

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

e-cloud mitigation

Evaporation of metals in relatively high pressure of a rare gas produces very rough and porous films. Already mentioned in the literature, “gold black” has been produced and characterized.

Gold black deposited by evaporation in Kr (0.5 mbar)


P. Chiggiato

et al


graphite coating on

black gold substrate

for PS2 and

SPS upgrade;

effort triggered

by HHH ECL’2 workshop

no dependence on time of exposure to air

deliverables milestones
deliverables & milestones
  • deliverables
    • 2004: HHH & HHH-APD web sites => OK
    • 2005: creation of first web-based beam dynamics code repository => OK http://oraweb.cern.ch:9000/pls/hhh/code_website.startup
    • 2007: web based database for s.c. cables and magnets concluded http://sdb.web.cern.ch/sdb => OK
    • 2008: final report – after final workshop
    • milestones:
    • web reference for IR optics => OKhttp://care-hhh.web.cern.ch/care-hhh/SuperLHC_IRoptics/IRoptics.html
    • booster synchrotron optics => in progress
    • structured list of intensity limits => OK http://care-hhh.web.cern.ch/care-hhh/Intensity%20Limits/intensity-limits.htm
    • scaling laws for magnet and cryogenic cost => 2008

2 summer students

+ 1 doctoral student

for further updates

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

recent publications presentations end of 2007
recent publications & presentations, end of 2007

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

recent publications presentations 2008
recent publications & presentations, 2008

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

recent publications presentations 2008 cont d
recent publications & presentations, 2008 cont’d

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

recent care hhh workshop proceedings 2008
recent CARE-HHH workshop proceedings, 2008

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

apd exchanges
APD exchanges
  • 3-week visit by Mauro Pivi (SLAC) to CERN for electron-cloud studies in March 2008, mostly supported by HHH:
    • completion and benchmarking a novel simulation code "CMAD" for the detailed modeling of electron-cloud effects in LHC &SPS against simulations by the simpler code "HEADTAIL" considering a toy model
    • setting up of serial and parallel CMAD electron-cloud computations for the actual MAD optics of both LHC and SPS on the CERN linux cluster
    • discussions on possible electron-cloud countermeasures for the SPS upgrade, including the pertinent R&D program undertaken at PEP-II and CESR-TA

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

apd exchanges cont d
APD exchanges cont’d
  • 4-week visit by KazuhitoOhmi (KEK) to CERN for crab-cavity & beam-beam & nonlinear optics studies in August 2008, mostly supported by HHH:
    • strong-strong and weak-strong beam-beam simulations for LHC upgrade scenarios
    • LHC crab-cavity noise tolerances from simulations
    • KEKB crab-cavity experience & simulations
    • various applications of crab-waist sextupolesto the LHC upgrade (factor 3 luminosity gain for ultra-low beta* , possible use for mitigating long-range beam-beam effects, or collimation)

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

“crab-waist” collisions at DAFNE

(note: no crab cavities but sextupoles!)

C. Milardi






can we make

use of

crab waists

at the LHC?

w/o crab waist

current product

c rab waist in lhc
crab waist in LHC?

K. Ohmi

one example:

f=3.5 in LPA option

by squeezed to sx/f=2.1cm (extreme!)

→ L increases (14/2.1)1/2=2.6 times

→ xy decreases and xx is small for LPA

→ “crab waist has a chance to work!”



28 August ‘08


crab waist collisions
crab-waist collisions

K. Ohmi


HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

crab waist to push beam halo away from opposing beam
“crab-waist” to push beam halo away from opposing beam


K. Ohmi

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

apd exchanges cont d 2
APD exchanges cont’d - 2
  • 1-week visit by Ulrich Dorda (Vienna) to CERN for participation in long-range beam-beam compensation experiments at the SPS & and HHH topical workshop in August 2008, supported by HHH:
    • tune sensitivity of compensation
    • lifetime vs. distance power laws & WP dependence
    • “threshold” for collisions at reduced distance
    • simulations of long-range beam-beam experiments
    • “RF compensator”

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

apd exchanges cont d 3
APD exchanges cont’d - 3
  • 4-week visit by Rama Calaga (BNL) to CERN for advancing crab-cavity design in October 2008, partially supported by HHH
  • 4-week visit by A. Tarantin (Dubna) to CERN for modeling the SPS crystal experiments in summer 2008, partially supported by HHH
  • short-term visits by Erik Vallazza (INFN Trieste) and MichelaPrest (U. Insubria) for participation in SPS H8RD22 crystal experiments

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

amt exchanges
AMT exchanges

APD exchanges cont’d - 4

  • planned 4-week visit by ChandraBhat (FNAL) to CERN for developing a scheme to generate long, flat, intense “LPA” bunches in the upgraded injector complex
  • 1-week visits by M. Wilson (UK) and M. Jewell (Florida) for participation in WAMSDO workshop, partially supported by HHH

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

2007 crystal experiments
  • Seven weeks of CERN H8-SPS runs
    • goals:
      • test multi-strip crystals,
      • check the effect on electron and positrons,
      • dry-run for the equipment to be installed in the SPS
  • Participation in crystal collimation experiment at FNAL
  • Proposal of 2008 test in the CERN-SPS ring
  • Support:


Russian Foundation for Basic Research,

CERN AB and AT Departments, FNAL

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

2008 crystal experiments

crystal deflection

of negative pions

and muons in

the SPS North


W. Scandale et al


future experiment

in SPS ring proper

approved by

Research Board

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

Channeling 2008

international workshop on Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena, October 25 - November 1, 2008 Erice (Trapani - Sicily), Italy , organized by INFN-LNF in cooperation with HADRON PHYSICS I3 , CARE HHH , and LPI RAS



  • coherent scattering of relativistic charged particles in matter
  • radiation of relativistic charged particles in periodic structures (coherent bremsstrahlung, channeling radiation, resonant transition radiation, diffraction radiation, parametric x-ray radiation, LPM effect)
  • crystal channeling, volume capture and crystal reflection of positive ions: theory and experiments; crystal assisted collimation in hadron colliders: proposals and experimental observations
  • channeling of radiations in capillary systems (micro- and nano-channeling, nanotubes, nanoporous)
  • novel types of sources for electromagnetic radiation (FEL, Thomson scattering, laser plasma acceleration)
  • applications of channeling phenomena (bending of the beams, positron sources, powerful radiation sources, x-ray waveguides, capillary/polycapillary optics, novel x-ray table-top instruments)

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

2008 gantt chart - 1

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

2008 gantt chart - 2

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008

2008 HHH highlights

crystal collimation update

(results from 2008 SPS+FNAL experiments

+ newly approved experiment in SPS proper)

[W. Scandale or collaborator]

LHC crab cavities

[R. Calaga or J. Tuckmantel or Frank Z.,…]

HHH, CARE’07, CERN, October 29-31, 2007

conclusions hhh2008
Conclusions – HHH2008
  • numerous high-impact workshops concluding 5 years of HHH activity, preparation of summary report
  • in 2008 so far 12 CARE-Conf docs + 2 CARE Notes several more in the pipeline
  • maintain focused efforts in many frontier areas
  • - crystal collimation, slim magnets, e-cloud suppression, LHC crab cavities, beam-beam compensation, novel optics design schemes, fast cycling s.c. magnets, new beam diagnostics
  • results benefit global accelerator community
  • - code repository, s.c. database, intensity limits
  • sustained strong dissemination & training effort
  • - mutual visits between partner labs, publications, seminars, web pages, many summer students and graduate students

HHH, CARE Meeting, CERN, 17.09. 2008