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EDUS 220 Educational Psychology Unit 5: Human Learning Dean Owen, Ph.D., LPCC Spring 2011
Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner A kind of learning in which rewards and punishments are key ingredients in changing behavior. 1904-1990
Is it S-R or R-S??? Classical or Pavlovian learning occurs when a stimulus (S) elicits a Response (R). Operant learning occurs when voluntary behavior (R) becomes associate with its consequence (S).
Operant conditioning is the term introduced by the behaviorist B.F. Skinner. Internal thoughts and motivations were not enough to explain behavior. A more “scientific” approach was to focus on external behavior that could be directly observed.
Skinner used the term operant to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences" (1953).
Operant Conditioning Key Terms: Reinforcement Shaping Acquisition Free Operant Punishment Extinction Spontaneous recovery This is where superstitious behavior is learned! Post hoc ergo propter hoc!
Operant Conditioning Reinforcement: Any consequence of a behavior that enhances the likelihood of a future occurrence of the behavior. Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a favorable stimulus (commonly seen as pleasant) that increases the frequency of that behavior. In the Skinner box experiment, a stimulus such as food or sugar solution can be delivered when the rat engages in a target behavior, such as pressing a lever. Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus (commonly seen as unpleasant) thereby increasing that behavior's frequency. In the Skinner box experiment, negative reinforcement can be a loud noise continuously sounding inside the rat's cage until it engages in the target behavior, such as pressing a lever, upon which the loud noise is removed.
Operant Conditioning Reinforcers can be categorized as follows: PrimaryReinforcer: A consequence such as food, water that satisfies a fundamental biological need.
Operant Conditioning Reinforcers can be categorized as follows: Secondary Reinforcer: A consequence such as social approval or money that has acquired reinforcement properties through previous learning. A symbolic or representational reward that could be exchanged for a more primary reinforcer.
Operant Conditioning Reinforcers can be categorized as follows: Extrinsic Reinforcer: A reward that is provided externally to the individual.
Operant Conditioning Reinforcers can be categorized as follows: Intrinsic: a reward that one gives to oneself…..the behavior is self-rewarding and causes the behavior to continue…..
Operant Conditioning Schedules of Reinforcement 1. Continuous: Reinforcement occurs with every occurrence of the behavior. Best used during initial learning to build a strong association.
Operant Conditioning Schedules of Reinforcement 2. Partial: Reinforcement occurs only part of the time….learning is slower but more resistant to extinction. • Fix ratio schedule: reinforce every 5th time • Variable ratio: reinforcement delivered after a variable number of times. • Fixed interval: reinforcement after a fixed amount of time. • Variable interval: reinforcement after a variable amount of time.
Operant Conditioning Punishment: Any consequence of a behavior that reduces the likelihood of a future occurrence of the behavior. Positive punishment (also called "Punishment by contingent stimulation") occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by an aversive stimulus, such as introducing a shock or loud noise, resulting in a decrease in that behavior. (Give something bad…) Negative punishment (also called "Punishment by contingent withdrawal") occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of a favorable stimulus, such as taking away a child's toy following an undesired behavior, resulting in a decrease in that behavior. (Take away something good)
Operant Conditioning How do you teach a mouse to press a bar….or a chicken to peck a target???
Operant Conditioning How do you teach a human press a bar or push a button?
Operant Conditioning How do you teach a mouse to press a bar….or a chicken to peck a target??? Free operant learning: Learning by exploration….
Operant Conditioning Shaping: Selectively reinforcing behaviors that are closer and closer to a desired goal. (Successive approximations). The is roughly akin to learning in stages or in steps. Getting better and better…… How do you shape a professor ?????
Operant Conditioning Can you shape my behavior?? What behavior do your want to shape??? What do professors like?? How can you deliver that?
Operant Conditioning Extinction: The gradual decay of a learned behavior as the result of a failure to reinforce it. Behavior that is not reinforced generally does not persist. Reinforcement Schedules determine how easily behavior can be extinguished. Fixed, Variable, or intermittant, or random.
Operant Conditioning Spontaneous Recovery: The temporary reemergence of learned behavior following extinction.
Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning set the stage for what has become known as “Behavior Modification” and for a branch of therapy known as behavioral counseling. It’s all about controlling contingencies and what is reinforced and what is punished. The principles also form a foundation in traditional teaching.
Operant Conditioning People often choose to invest considerable time in activities without apparent reward.
Operant Conditioning People often choose to invest considerable time in activities that appear to be punishing (???) How can we explain this?
The cause underlying such behaviors is intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation: actions or behaviors performed for their own sake with the only tangible benefit being outcomes such as pleasure, learning, satisfaction, interest, or challenge.
Operant Conditioning Extrinsic motivation occurs when learners engage in activities for the purpose of attaining rewards, such as praise or high grades (Alderman, 1999). Engaging in behavior to avoid punishment is also regarded as an extrinsic motivation.
Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation Some researchers believe that intrinsic motivation can be enhanced through the use of particular strategies, and have sought a correlation between the design of specific educational materials and an increase in learning performance. Thus far, studies have found no evidence to establish that the interest value of material is a determinant--as opposed to a consequence--of learning (Parker & Lepper, 1992). However, some useful strategies that can promote intrinsic motivation have been proposed.
Lepper and Hodell (1989) suggest four methods for enhancing intrinsic motivation: Challenge: Design challenging activities which convey the message to the learners that they have competitive skills. It is essential to find a balance between learner competence and the difficulty of the goals. Goals must not too difficult…or too easy!
Promoting intrinsic Motivation Curiosity: Activities that create disequilibria for the learners can elicit curiosity. Presenting discrepant ideas--those that conflict with their prior knowledge or beliefs--can prompt students to seek information that will resolve the discrepancy. As with challenge, moderate discrepancies are most effective because they are easily incorporated into an individual's mental framework; large discrepancies may be rapidly discounted (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996, p.277).
Promoting intrinsic Motivation Control: A sense of responsibility will be better fostered in learners if they are allowed to make meaningful choices in the learning process. Fantasy: The design of simulations and games that involve fantasy can to encourage skill development.
Social Learning Theory Observational learning… Monkey see, Monkey do! Albert Bandura 1925
Social Learning Theory Observational learning… Monkey see, Monkey do!
Social Learning Theory The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Bandura (1977) states: "Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. (Learning to drive a car could be very interesting)
Social Learning Theory Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action." (p22).
Social Learning Theory Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, an environmental influences., including external, vicarious and self reinforcement.
Social Learning Theory • The component processes underlying observational learning are: • Attention, including modeled events (distinctiveness, affective valence, complexity, prevalence, functional value) and observer characteristics (sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement),
Social Learning Theory (2) Retention, including symbolic coding, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal),
Social Learning Theory (3) Motor Reproduction, including physical capabilities, self-observation of reproduction, accuracy of feedback, and
Social Learning Theory (4) Motivation, including external, vicarious and self reinforcement.
Social Learning Theory The most common (and pervasive) examples of social learning situations are television commercials. Commercials suggest that drinking a certain beverage or using a particular hair shampoo will make us popular and win the admiration of attractive people. Depending upon the component processes involved (such as attention or motivation), we may model the behavior shown in the commercial and buy the product being advertised. This may be the most powerful of all psychological behavior modification strategies. Marketing is basically an attempt to influence an individual in such a way as to create a need that can only be satisfied through the purchase of the marketer’s product.
Social Learning Theory 1. The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing. 2. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value. 3. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional value.