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Russia: Pre-WWI By: Lucy Hardman, Sophie Kaufman, Taylor Cotie-Mullenger and Margaret Campbell
Contents • Governing Structures – Tsarist Rule • Ivan The Terrible • Peter & Catherine The Great • Crimean War • Reforms under Alexander II • Russian Revolution The Winter Palace built under Peter the Great
Governing Structure • Grand Duchy of Moscow (1263-1547) • A combination of democracy and aristocracy • Tsars • Absolute monarchy • Appointed own officials
Ivan the Terrible1547-1584 • First Tsar of Russia • Spread terror throughout Russia • Exiled subjects to Siberia • Army killed in his name • Left Russia in uncertain state • Near economic collapse after Livonion War • Tried expanding into Europe
Crimean War1853-1856 • Russia vs. British, France, Ottoman Empire • Russia expanding into Ottoman Empire • Surrendered after loss of Austrian support • Treaty of Paris still left unsettled relations
Russian Revolution - February 1917 • During this period, Czar Nicholas II abdicated, leaving a Provisional Government in power. • A series of strikes, and the shutting-down of almost every factory and enterprise. • Petrograd, the capital, was the focus of attention. • Left most of the army in a state of mutiny. Nicholas II, shortly after abdicating. (March 1917)
Russian Revolution - October 1917 • Bolsheviks, Lead by Lenin, overthrew the Provisional government in Petrograd. • Appointed themselves leaders of govt. ministries & seized control of the countryside. • White army (Liberal and monarchist) went to war against the Red army (Bolsheviks) Vladimir Lenin, Bolshevik leader