به نام پروردگار مهربان. In the name of God. IRANIAN AMAZING COLLECTION Pack 2 (DVD no. 1) www.irane7000saale.com. Classical Persia. Artistic portrait of Cyrus the Great.
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In the name of God
IRANIAN AMAZING COLLECTION
Pack 2 (DVD no. 1)
Artistic portrait of Cyrus the Great
Cyrus (580-529 BC) was the first Achaemenid Emperor. He founded Persia by uniting the two original Iranian Tribes- the Medes and the Persians. Although he was known to be a great conqueror, who at one point controlled one of the greatest Empires ever seen, he is best remembered for his unprecedented tolerance and magnanimous attitude towards those he defeated. http://www.iranchamber.com/history/cyrus/cyrus.php
Achemenids: --558-330 (BCE)—fought in Persian Wars with Greece—crumbled by Alexander
Selucids—part of Alexander’s empire when divided into 3 (323-83 BCE)
Overtaken by Parthians who ruled from 247 BCE to 224 CE—put under pressure by expanding Rome, internal rebellion brings down in early 3rd century CE
Then a new empire, the Sasanids reigned from 224 to 651 CE when Arab warriors conquered it and put into an expanding Islamic empire.
Persian Empire at the Time of the Persian Wars
The first Persians (Iranians) were Indo-European nomads: arrived in Iran around 1,000 BCE; Power came from mounted cavalry
Persian nobleman with Persian soldiers
Pasargad, Tomb of Cyrus the Great
First Persian Empire Achemenids– founded by Cyrus the Great (r. 558-530 BCE) created largest known empire
He besieged and captured Babylon in 539 and released the Jews who had been held captive there, thus earning his immortalization in the Book of Isaiah. When he died in 529, Cyrus's kingdom extended as far east as the Hindu Kush in present-day Afghanistan
Cyrus the Great (559-529 BC) "I am Cyrus, who founded the empire of the Persians.Grudge me not therefore, this little earth that covers my body."
“Peoples of Darius’ Empire”
Darius: kin of Cyrius: r 521-486 BCE: extended empire east and west: by far largest empire ever
Most imp as an ___________, not a ______: Had to figure out how to rule over a far flung empire, with many peoples (70 distinct ethnic groups)—how to communicate, how to administer and tax territories?
Use of Satrapies and “eyes and ears”
A satrapy was an administrative unit, usually organized on a geographical basis. A satrap (governor) administered the region, a general supervised military recruitment and ensured order, and a state secretary kept official records. The general and the state secretary reported directly to the central government. The twenty satrapies were linked by a 2,500-kilometer highway, the most impressive stretch being the royal road from Susa to Sardis, built by command of Darius. Relays of mounted couriers could reach the most remote areas in fifteen days. Despite the relative local independence afforded by the satrapy system however, royal inspectors, the "eyes and ears of the king," toured the empire and reported on local conditions, and the king maintained a personal bodyguard of 10,000 men, called the Immortals
This rural sleigh dates to approximately 1920. The sleigh is made of tin to keep it light. The rail is detachable and has a set of wheels for the summer. The familiar quote "Neither snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor gloom of night stays this courier" was painted on the sleigh. It is not really the post office's motto but has been long been associated with it
Persepolis the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenian empire. It was built during the reign Darius the Great (522-485 BC), and developed further by successive kings. The various temples and monuments are located upon a vast platform, some 450 metres by 300 metres and 20 metres in height. At the head of the ceremonial staircase leading to the terrace is the 'Gateway of All Nations' built by Xerxes I and guarded by two colossal bull-like figures.
Political and Economic
How is this Political and Economic?????
Selucid (light brown) was part of Alex’s empire-
Hellenistic Era: blending of Greek/ Middle Eastern culture after the death of Alexander; cultural arts greatly influenced/ sup-ported by the wealth accumulated in previous years of conquest.
Darius revolutionized the economy by placing it on a silver and gold coinage system. Trade was extensive, and under the Achaemenids there was an efficient infrastructure that facilitated the exchange of commodities among the far reaches of the empire. As a result of this commercial activity, Persian words for typical items of trade became prevalent throughout the Middle East and eventually entered the English language; examples are, bazaar, shawl, sash, turquoise, tiara, orange, lemon, melon, peach, spinach, and asparagus. Trade was one of the empire's main sources of revenue, along with agriculture and tribute
Gold coins of Darius.
Agriculture was the foundation of the economy—most people work in agriculture;
Most peasants are free, some own their own land, some work for others
Underground canals for irrigating known as qanat
Most slaves works as domestic servants of skilled laborers in household of wealthy, some worked in fields, state-owned slaves build pubic works, some slaves in Mesopotamia work for temple communities
A view inside a qanat
Trade: location, location, location
“Middle Man” in silk road routes
What makes trade possible: political s_______, prosperity of area location, standardized laws and _____, good routes by land and sea
Missionary Buddhism, Christianity, & Manichaeism in classical era.
Cyrus the Great offered religious toleration for Jews & allowed to do pilgrimage to Jerusalem
Buddhist statue just across Afghanistan border
Christian cathedral in Iran ca. 50 C.E.
Bowl from Xerxes the Great with trilingual inscription: such a heterogeneous empire!
Best Example --Persepolis
همیشه شاد و پیروز و تندرست باشید.
Special Thanks to dear creator
Iranian Amazing Collection