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Early Colonial History. A Review.

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MAP 3.4 The Proprietary Colonies After the restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660, King Charles II of England created the new proprietary colonies of Carolina, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. New Hampshire was set off as a royal colony in 1680, and in 1704, the lower counties of Pennsylvania became the colony of Delaware.


Southern Colonies



North Carolina

South Carolina



Chesapeake Colonies

  • Maryland
  • Virginia
  • Still part of the Southern Colonies
s colonies
  • Southern Colonies
  • Indentured servants
  • slavery to work the large plantations
  • rice, tobacco and cotton
  • fertile soil
  • cities: Charleston, Savannah & Baltimore
  • Maryland
  • Virginia
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Georgia


Colony/DatePerson ResponsibleWhy FoundedGoverned/Owner


This illustration is a detail of John Smith’s map of Virginia. It includes the names of many Indian villages, suggesting how densely settled was the Indian population of the coast of Chesapeake Bay. For the inset of Powhatan and his court in the upper left, the engraver borrowed images from John White’s drawings of the Indians of the Roanoke area.

SOURCE:(a)Princeton University Library (b)Library of Congress.


Early Colonial Tobacco

1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco.

1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco.

1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco.

1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.


Nathaniel Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676

Nathaniel Bacon

GovernorWilliam Berkeley


MarylandLord Baltimore & Calvert Family

  • Proprietary colony
  • Started as safe haven for CATHOLICS
  • 1649 Act of Religious Toleration
  • Following Protestant Revolution 1689 toleration was revoked and Catholics persecuted until American Revolution





The Mason Children, by an unknown Boston artist, ca. 1670. These Puritan children—David, Joanna, and Abigail Mason—are dressed in finery, an indication of the wealth and prominence of their family. The cane in young David’s hand indicates his position as the male heir, while the rose held by Abigail is a symbol of childhood innocence. SOURCE:Attributed to the Freake-Gibbs Painter,American,active Boston,MA.,ca.1670.The Mason Children:David,Joanna,and Abigail , 1670.Oil on canvas,39 •421 in.The Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco,Gift of Mr.and Mrs.John D.Rockefeller 3rd,1979,7.3. 1 2


John Winthrop

We shall be as a city on a hill..


Puritan “Rebels”

Roger Williams

Anne Hutchinson


King Phillip’s War (1675-1676)

Indians and New Englanders skirmish during King Philip’s War in a detail from John Seller’s “A Mapp of New England,” published immediately after the war.

SOURCE:John Seller Map of New England,1675.Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University.


Pennsylvania “The Holy Experiment

The Delawares presented William Penn with this wampum belt after the Shackamaxon Treaty of 1682. In friendship, a Quaker in distinctive hat clasps the hand of an Indian. The diagonal stripes on either side of the figures convey information about the territorial terms of the agreement. Wampum belts like this one, made from strings of white and purple shells, were used to commemorate treaties throughout the colonial period and were the most widely accepted form of money in the northeastern colonies during the seventeenth century. SOURCE:Photograph by Gavin Ashworth.The Historical Society of Pennsylvania.