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Higgs & SUSY Phenomenology. Nikos Konstantinidis. Plan. Motivation & Introduction to SUSY Further reading: S.P.Martin, hep-ph/9709356 SUSY Higgs Further reading: Spira & Zerwas, hep-ph/9803257 Higgs & SUSY Higgs phenomenology at hadron colliders (esp. LHC)

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Higgs susy phenomenology l.jpg

Higgs & SUSY Phenomenology

Nikos Konstantinidis

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  • Motivation & Introduction to SUSY

    • Further reading: S.P.Martin, hep-ph/9709356

  • SUSY Higgs

    • Further reading: Spira & Zerwas, hep-ph/9803257

  • Higgs & SUSY Higgs phenomenology at hadron colliders (esp. LHC)

    • Further reading: ATLAS Physics TDR

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Exact SU(2)xU(1)Y invariance would imply

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SUSY solves fine-tuning problem

  • Postulate symmetry between fermions-bosons

    fermions ↔ bosons

  • SUSY: “To every fermionic degree of freedom corresponds one bosonic degree of freedom”.

  • So, a SM fermion acquires two super-partners

    • e.g. t-quark → s-tops: tR & tL

  • What about the partners of the SM bosons?

    • Gauginos, Higgsinos, gluinos…

    • (Exercise)

Susy is broken l.jpg
SUSY is broken

  • …or else SUSY particles should have been observed (with same mass as SM-partners)

  • How? (beyond the scope of these lectures…)

    • Gauge/Gravity mediated SUSY breaking

  • What happens to the cancellation of quadratic divergences?

    • SUSY partners must be not heavier than ~TeV

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Other arguments for SUSY

  • Biggest possible symmetry of interacting QFTs

    • (Lorentz sym.)  (gauge sym.)  (SUSY)

  • New particles automatically lead to unification of gauge couplings at MGUT ~ 1016 GeV

  • Provides a good candidate for Dark Matter (the lightest SUSY particle – LSP)

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R-parity and the LSP

  • A totally unconstrained SUSY would lead to the proton decaying with lifetime of ~hours!!!

  • Introduce R-parity

    R = (-1)3(B-L)+2s

  • All SM particles have R=+1, all sparticles R=-1

  • R-parity conservation implies that there are always two sparticles in a vertex

  • The minimal SUSY extension to the SM (MSSM) is R-parity conserving

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SUSY simplifications

  • Unconstrained SUSY would bring in 105 parameter (on top of the ____ of the SM)

  • mSUGRA: simple boundary conditions at GUT scale reduce the number of parameters to ~5!

    • Common scalar mass m0

    • Common gaugino mass m1/2

    • Common trilinear scalar interaction A

    • Ratio of vevs of two Higgs fields tanb

    • Sign of Higgs mass parameter m

      Can predict SUSY spectrum at our energies

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SUSY Higgs

  • The SM Higgs mechanism is very economical

  • In SUSY, two Higgs doublets are needed. Quoting S&Z:

    “…the Higgsino fields associated with a single Higgs field would generate triangle anomalies; they cancel if the two conjugate doublets are added up…”

  • This means:

    • 8 DoF, 3 eaten up by the W± and Z => 5 Higgs fields: h0,A0,H0,H±

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Higgs mass spectrum

  • Connection between Higgs masses and gauge boson masses:

    M2H±= M2A + M2W => MH± >MW

    … Mh < MZ

  • Unfortunately, only true at tree level. When including higher order contributions:

    Mh < ~140GeV (or so…)

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SM Higgs production at the LHC



(gg fusion)






(with W/Z)



(with tt/bb)

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LHC running

  • Planned to start in 2007. After commissioning

    • Initially at 2x1033 cm-2sec-1, giving ~10fb-1/year

    • Ramping up to 1034cm-2sec-1, giving ~100fb-1/year

      (Tevatron will ultimately collect <~10fb-1)

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Higgs discovery prospects @ LHC

  • The LHC can probe the entire set of “allowed” Higgs mass values;

    • in most cases a few months at 2x1033cm-2s-1 are adequate for a 5s observation




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Search regions

Three distinct mass ranges:

  • High masses: mH > 180GeV

    • The easiest region: H → ZZ

  • Intermediate masses: 130-180 GeV

    • Golden channel useful, but not enough

  • low masses: mH < ~130GeV

    • The hardest region (and most interesting!)

High mass higgs l.jpg

Signal Bkg

Events / 0.5 GeV

CMS , 10 fb-1

H  4l (l=e,)

m (4l)

High mass Higgs


Easy to see but requires:

-- ~ 90% e,  efficiency even at low pT (analysis cuts : pT 1,2,3,4 > 20, 20, 7, 7, GeV)

--  /m ~ 1%, tails < 10%  good quality of E, p measurements in ECAL and tracker

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Intermediate masses

  • Deep of H → ZZ covered by

    • VBF qqH (H→ WW)

    • Direct H → WW

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Low masses

  • Arguably the most interesting region:

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Low mass Higgs (MH<130 GeV)

  • Hgg: decay is rare (B~10-3)

    • But with good resolution, one gets a mass peak

    • Motivation for LAr/PbWO4 calorimeters

    • CMS example: at 100 GeV, s1GeV -> S/B  1:20

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VBF with Htt

  • VBF 2nd largest x-section

    • Needs efficient jet reco to high eta

    • Main bkg: Zjj

    • Bkg shape easy to estimate

Forward Tagging Jets


ATLAS 30fb-1


Higgs Decay

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ttH (H–>bb)

  • sxBR ~0.3pb

    • Main bkg: ttbb/jj

  • Relies on

    • b-tagging (4 jets)

    • Complete reconstruction of tops

  • Bkg shape critical

    • Can be measured in the data

      (with ttjj events)

  • Efficiencies ~1%

    • A factor 10 from b-tagging

    • A factor 10 from kinematical cuts


Channels for m h 115gev l.jpg


total S/ B

Channels for MH~115GeV

gg H  

ttH  tt bb  bl bjj bb

VBF: qqH  qq



Different production/decay modes

Different backgrounds

 complementary!

*(K-factors  (NLO)/(LO)  2 not included)


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SM Higgs properties – mass

  • Mass measurement

    • Limited by absolute energy scale

      • leptons & photons: 0.1% (with Z calibration)

      • Jets: 1%

    • Resolutions:

      • For gg & 4l ≈ 1.5 GeV/c2

      • For bb ≈ 15 GeV/c2

    • At large masses: decreasing precision due to large GH

    • CMS ≈ ATLAS

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SM Higgs properties – BRs

  • Biggest uncertainty (5-10%): Luminosity

    • Relative couplings statistically limited

      • Small overlap regions

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Higgs properties – couplings

Th-err: ~4%

Th-err: ~20%

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SM Higgs properties – width

  • Direct measurement:

    • Possible for MH>200

      • Using golden mode (4l)


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MSSM Higgs: decays

  • h is light

    • Decays to bb (90%) & tt (8%)

      • cc, gg decays suppressed

  • H/A “heavy”

    • Decays to top open (low tanb)

    • Otherwise still to bb & tt

    • But: WW/ZZ channels suppressed; lose golden modes for H

No mixing

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If no Higgs: VLVL scattering

  • Biggest background is Standard Model VV scattering

    • Analyses are difficult and limited by statistics – this is really the limit of the LHC

Resonant WZ scattering

at 1.2 & 1.5 TeV

Non-resonant W+W+ scattering

MH=1 TeV

L=300 fb-1


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Events for 10 fb-1



Events for 10 fb-1

 Tevatron reach


ET(j1) > 80 GeV

ETmiss > 80 GeV



First estimate of SUSY scale

Cascades of heavy SUSY particles to decaying to lighter ones

LSP stable (with R-parity conserved), hence escapes

Final states with lots of

jets, leptons and ETmis

From Meff peak first/fast measurement of SUSY mass scale to  20%(10 fb-1, mSUGRA)