CHAPTER 9 DEVELOPMENT
INTRO • World is divided between relatively wealthy and relatively poor regions – geographers try to understand why • World’s countries can be classified according to their levels of development • More Developed Country (MDC) • Less Developed Country (LDC) • Development – the process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
ISSUE #1 Why Does Development Vary Among Countries? (Study the maps in this key issue!!!!!!!!)
MEASURING DEVELOPMENT • A country’s level of development can be identified according to 3 factors: • Economic (GDP) • Social (Literacy rates and education) • Demographic (life expectancy) • Human Development Index (HDI) – combination of these factors to measure a state’s level of development • High ranking HDI countries tend to be in the West (W. Europe and North America) • Many of the lowest ranking are in sub-Saharan Africa • highest in recent years • Norway • U.S. ranked 10th in 2005 (why?) 2011 HDI rankings 2011 HDI map
Human Development Index, 2005 Fig. 9-1: Developed by the United Nations, the HDI combines several measures of development: life expectancy at birth, adjusted GDP per capita, and knowledge (schooling and literacy).
ECONOMIC INDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT • Economic indicators factored into the HDI include: • GDP - Measures average, NOT distribution • Economic Structure /Types of Jobs - Know primary, secondary and tertiary jobs! • Worker Productivity • Access to raw materials • Availability of consumer goods
Annual GDP per capita, 2005 Fig. 9-2: Annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita averages over $20,000 in most developed countries but under $5000 in most less developed countries.
Employment Changes by Sector Fig. 9-3: Percentage employment in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.
SOCIAL INDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT • Social indicators factored into the HDI include: • Education & literacy • Health & welfare
Primary Student-Teacher Ratios Fig. 9-6: Students per teacher, primary school level. Primary school teachers have much larger class sizes in LDCs than in MDCs, partly because of the large numbers of young people in the population.
Calories per capita Fig. 9-9: Daily available calories per capita as percent of requirements, 2005. In MDCs, the average person consumes one-third or more over the required average minimum, while in LDCs, the average person gets only the minimum requirement or less.
AMERICANS & CALORIES • Recommended daily caloric intake is between 2,000 – 2,500 /day • Avg. American daily caloric intake is about 3,800/day (these are for adults)
Health Care Expenditures per GDP Fig. 9-7: Expenditures on health care as percent of GDP, 2005. MDCs have much higher GDP and spend a greater proportion of GDP on health care than do LDCs.
Physicians per Population Fig. 9-8: Physicians per 1000 people, 2005. MDCs have three or more physicians per 1000 people compared to less than one in most LDCs.
DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT • Demographic indicators factored into the HDI include: • Life Expectancy • Infant Mortality Rate • Natural Increase Rate • Crude Birth Rate
TYPE 2 • List the 3 types of indicators used to measure a nation’s development
TYPE 2 • List the 3 types of indicators used to measure a nation’s development - Economic, Social, Demographic
TYPE 2 2. List the most important economic indicator 3. List the social indicators 4. List the demographic indicator most used 5. True/False – in MDCs the percentage of agricultural workers has sharply decreased while the percentage of service workers has sharply increased
TYPE 2 • List the economic indicators (GDP) • List the social indicators (Education and literacy rates) • List the demographic indicator most used (life expectancy) 5. True/False – in MDCs the percentage of agricultural workers has sharply decreased while the percentage of service workers has sharply increased
ISSUE #2 Where are More and Less Developed Countries Distributed?
Human Development Index, 2005 Based on this map, and using More Developed Region and Less Developed Region as your categories, categorize the following: A. Anglo-America (U.S./Canada) D. Japan G. South Asia J. S-S Africa B. East Asia E. Latin America H. South Pacific K. W. Europe C. Eastern Europe F. Middle East I. Southeast Asia ---- compare your answers to those on the map located on page 301
HOW THE WORLD IS ORGANIZED • Organized into 9 regions based on development • in a global economy geographers are very interested in comparing/contrasting the economic patterns of the regions
REGIONS MORE DEVELOPED LESS DEVELOPED 1. Latin America 2. East Asia 3. Middle East 4. Southeast Asia 5. South Asia 6. Sub-Saharan Africa • Anglo-America • Western Europe • Eastern Europe • Japan • South Pacific
More & Less Developed Regions Fig. 9-11: The less developed regions include Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia.
REGIONS cont. • Anglo-America & Latin America– distinguished on basis of dominant languages, religions, and natural increase rates • Europe – share many cultural traditions but different political developments have produced different levels of economic development • Asia – various regions are distinguished by demographic, religious, linguistic, ethnic and political characteristics • Japan – cultural and demographic characteristics contrast greatly with states in East Asia • South Pacific – large area but less populous than the other regions
ISSUE #3 Where Does Level of Development Vary by Gender?
Development may mask inequality • According to UN, gender inequality exists in every country • GDI – compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes • GEM – compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making
(GDI) GENDER-RELATED DEVELOPMENT INDEX • Combines same indicators as the HDI • economic, social, demographic • “high” vs. “low” GDI (what does this mean?) • Why does Mexico have a higher GDI than Iran? • Highest GDIs – Western Europe and North America • Lowest GDIs – SS Africa • Overall, status of women has been increasing since 1970
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI), 2005 Fig. 9-13: The GDI combines four measures of development, reduced by the degree of disparity between males and females.
INDICATORS OF GENDER DIFFERENCES ECONOMIC INDICATORS SOCIAL INDICATORS Looks at education and literacy Women are less likely to attend school in LDCs than in MDCs In SS Africa and the ME fewer than 1/3 of girls attend schools • Looks at average incomes of males and females • It is lower in EVERY country • In LDCs this difference is relatively low in terms of dollars, but high in terms of percentage
Female-Male Income Differences Fig. 9-14: Female income as a percent of male income, 2005. Women’s income is lower than men’s in all countries, but the gender gap is especially high in parts of the Middle East, South Asia, and Latin America.
Gender Differences in School Enrollment Fig. 9-15: As many or more girls than boys are enrolled in school in more developed countries, but fewer girls than boys are enrolled in many LDCs.
Male & Female Literacy Rates Fig. 9-16: Female literacy (bottom) is lower than male literacy (top) in many LDCs, with substantial gender gaps in parts of the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia.
Male Literacy Rates, 2005 Fig. 9-16a: Percent of males literate, 2005. Literacy is close to 100% among males in MDCs, but it is below 60% in some of the world’s poorest countries.
Female Literacy Rates, 2005 Fig. 9-16b: Low rates of female literacy are much more common than male literacy. Female literacy is also lower than male literacy in parts of the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia.
GDI cont. DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS • Looks at life expectancy • Pattern here is different; the gap is actually larger in MDCs than in LDCs • Baby girl born in the U.S. is expected to live 6 years longer than a baby boy; in most LDCs it is only 1 or 2 years • Hazards of childbearing play a big role in this trend
Life Expectancy & Gender, 2005 Fig. 9-17: Differences between male & female life expectancy. Women’s life expectancy is several years longer than men’s in MDCs, but only slightly longer in many LDCs.
GENDER EMPOWERMENT • Reflects improvements in the standard of living and well-being of women • Calculated by combining: • Economic indicators • Political indicators • Highest GEMs are in Northern Europe, North America, South Pacific • Lowest GEMS are in Africa and Asia (problems reporting in LDCs?)
GEM cont. ECONOMIC INDICATORS POLITICAL INDICATORS Looks at managerial jobs and elected jobs - influence over decision making process More women than men vote in most places No country has a parliament or congress with a female majority • Looks at income and professionaljobs • UN looks specifically at % of women occupying professional and technical jobs - influence over the economy • Role of cultural barriers in job opportunities?
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) -compare to HDI map on page 293 Fig. 9-18: The GEM combines two measures of economic power and two of political power by women. (Little data are available for LDCs.)
Women Professional & Technical Workers Fig 9-19: Half or more of professional and technical workers are women in most MDCs and some LDCs, such as Brazil, but only a small proportion are women in most LDCs.
Women Administrators & Managers Fig. 9-20: More than one-third of top administrators are women in North America and some other MDCs and LDCs, but 20% or fewer top administrators are women in many other countries.
Women as Legislators Fig 9-21: Over 30% of legislative seats in northern Europe and over 20% of those in China and other nations are held by women . In many other LDCs, under 10% are held by women.
1. List the More Developed Regions of the world. MDCs - Anglo-America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Japan, South Pacific
2. List the Less Developed Regions of the world. LDCs - Latin America, East Asia, Middle East,SoutheastAsia,South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa
3. True/False – areas with higher HDIs tend to also be areas with higher GDPs. True
4. What three types of indicators are used to determine HDI? Provide a specific example of each type.Economic – GDP, Economic Structure (types of jobs), Worker Productivity, Access to raw materials, Availability of consumer goodsSocial – Education & literacy, Health & welfareDemographic - Life Expectancy, Infant Mortality Rate,Natural Increase Rate, Crude Birth Rate