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Interest Grabber. Section 35-1. An Important Process.

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an important process

Interest Grabber

Section 35-1

An Important Process
  • While walking along a dusty path, you begin to cough. As you continue your walk, a small insect comes flying toward you. You blink and then duck so that it misses you. These actions are just a few examples of homeostasis. Homeostasis is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions relatively constant despite changes in their external environments.
  • 1. List three other examples of homeostasis that occur in organisms.
  • 2. Why is homeostasis important to an organism?
slide2

Section Outline

Section 35-1

  • 35–1 Human Body Systems

A. Organization of the Body

1. Cells

2. Tissues

3. Organs

4. Organ Systems

B. Maintaining Homeostasis

1. A Nonliving Example

2. In the Body

slide3

Examples of Feedback Inhibition

Section 35-1

Thermostat senses temperature change and switches off heating system

Room temperature increases

Room temperature decreases

Thermostat senses temperature change and switches on heating system

slide4

Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I

Section 35-1

Nervous System

Integumentary System

Skeletal System

Muscular System

Circulatory System

slide5

Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I

Section 35-1

Nervous System

Integumentary System

Skeletal System

Muscular System

Circulatory System

slide6

Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I

Section 35-1

Nervous System

Integumentary System

Skeletal System

Muscular System

Circulatory System

slide7

Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I

Section 35-1

Nervous System

Integumentary System

Skeletal System

Muscular System

Circulatory System

slide8

Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I

Section 35-1

Nervous System

Integumentary System

Skeletal System

Muscular System

Circulatory System

slide9

Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part 2

Section 35-1

Respiratory System

Digestive System

Excretory System

Endocrine System

Reproductive System

Lymphatic/Immune Systems

you ve got a lot of nerve

Interest Grabber

Section 35-2

You’ve Got a Lot of Nerve!
  • The nervous system controls and coordinates functions throughout the body. The nervous system is one of the body’s communication systems. Without communication, parts of the body could not work together smoothly.
slide11

Interest Grabber continued

Section 35-2

  • 1. Think about tying the shoelace of a sneaker. Construct a flowchart that shows what happens between your eyes and your brain, and between your brain and your hands, when you tie a bow in the shoelace.
  • 2. How would the communications be different if you tried to tie the shoelace with your eyes closed?
slide12

Section Outline

Section 35-2

  • 35–2 The Nervous System

A. Neurons

B. The Nerve Impulse

1. The Resting Neuron

2. The Moving Impulse

3. Threshold

C. The Synapse

slide13

Nucleus

Axon terminals

Cell body

Myelin sheath

Axon

Nodes

Dendrites

A Neuron

Section 35-2

slide19

Figure 35-8 The Synapse

Section 35-2

Direction of Impulse

Dendrite of adjacent neuron

Axon

Receptor

Vesicle

Axon terminal

Synaptic cleft

Neurotransmitter

brainiac

Interest Grabber

Section 35-3

Brainiac
  • Imagine that you are a computer systems engineer and your job is to design a computer that can perform all the functions of a human brain.
  • 1. Which brainlike functions can already be performed by computers?
  • 2. Which brainlike functions cannot be performed by computers?
  • 3. How successful do you think you (or anyone) could be in designing a computer that can perform all the functions of the human brain? Explain your answer.
slide21

Section Outline

Section 35-3

  • 35–3 Divisions of the Nervous System

A. The Central Nervous System

B. The Brain

1. The Cerebrum

2. The Cerebellum

3. The Brain Stem

4. The Thalamus and Hypothalamus

C. The Spinal Cord

D. The Peripheral Nervous System

1. The Somatic Nervous System

2. The Autonomic Nervous System

slide22

Central nervous system

Peripheral nervous system

Sensory nerves

Motor nerves

Somatic nervous system

Autonomic nervous system

Parasympathetic nervous system

Sympathetic nervous system

Concept Map

Section 35-3

The Nervous System

is divided into

which consists of

that make up

which is divided into

slide23

Cerebrum

Thalamus

Pineal gland

Hypothalamus

Cerebellum

Pituitary gland

Pons

Medulla oblongata

Spinal cord

Figure 35-9 The Brain

Section 35-3

slide24

Gray matter

Central canal

Spinal nerve

White matter

Meninges

Cross Section of the Spinal Cord

Section 35-3

taking it all in

Interest Grabber

Section 35-4

Taking It All In
  • Your senses—sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste—are constantly receiving information about your environment. Even if you are not thinking about it, your body is sensing and responding to conditions around you, such as the temperature of the room.
  • 1. List ten things you observe about the room you are in.
  • 2. Next to each observation, write the sense that you used to make that observation.
  • 3. What sense did you use most?
slide26

Section Outline

Section 35-4

  • 35–4 The Senses

A. Vision

B. Hearing and Balance

1. Hearing

2. Balance

C. Smell and Taste

D. Touch and Related Senses

slide27

Olfactory

(smell) bulb

Taste

sensory area

Olfactory

nerve

Thalamus

Cerebral cortex

Smell receptor

Nasal cavity

Smell

sensory area

Taste bud

Taste pore

Taste receptor

Sensory

nerve fibers

The Senses of Smell and Taste

Section 35-4

slide28

Vitreous humor

Muscle

Lens

Fovea

Aqueous humor

Cornea

Pupil

Optic nerve

Iris

Blood vessels

Ligaments

Retina

Choroid

Sclera

Figure 35-14 The Eye

Section 35-4

slide29

Oval window

Stirrup

Anvil

Semicircular canals

Hammer

Cochlear nerve

Cochlea

Bone

Auditory canal

Tympanum

Round window

Eustachian tube

Figure 35-15 The Ear

Section 35-4

poster designer

Interest Grabber

Section 35-5

Poster Designer
  • Imagine that you are working with a local community group to help stop drug abuse among teenagers. Your first assignment is to design a drug abuse awareness poster.
  • 1. Complete a brief sketch of your idea on a sheet of paper. What effects of drugs does your poster depict?
  • 2. Why do you think teenagers will pay attention to your poster?
slide31

Section Outline

Section 35-5

  • 35–5 Drugs and the Nervous System

A. Drugs That Affect the Synapse

1. Stimulants

2. Depressants

3. Cocaine

4. Opiates

5. Marijuana

6. Alcohol

7. Alcohol and Disease

B. Drug Abuse

slide32

Commonly Abused Drugs

Section 35-5

Used to increase alertness, relieve fatigue

Used to relieve anxiety, irritability, tension

Used to relieve pain

Stimulants

Depressants

Opiates

Amphetamines

Barbiturates

Tranquilizers

Morphine

Codeine

Increase heart and respiratory rates; elevate blood pressure; dilate pupils; decrease appetite

Slow down the actions of the central nervous system; small amounts cause calmness and relaxation; larger amounts cause slurred speech and impaired judgement

Act as a depressant; cause drowsiness, restlessness, nausea

Drug Type

Medical Use

Examples

Effects on the body

video contents

Videos

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  • Action Potential
  • Synaptic Transmission
video 1

Video 1

Action Potential

Video 1
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video 2

Video 2

Synaptic Transmission

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internet

Go Online

Internet
  • The latest discoveries in the nervous and immune systems
  • Interactive test
  • Articles on the human body
  • For links on the nervous system, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-0352.
  • For links on the human brain, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-0353.
  • For links on the senses, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-0354.
  • For links on drugs and drug abuse, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-0355.
section 1 answers

Interest Grabber Answers

  • 1. List three other examples of homeostasis that occur in organisms.
  • Accept all reasonable student examples that show an understanding of homeostasis.
  • 2. Why is homeostasis important to an organism?
  • Homeostasis allows an organism to remain in balance with its environment. If homeostasis is not maintained, it can harm the organism or result in the death of the organism.
Section 1 Answers
section 2 answers

Interest Grabber Answers

Section 2 Answers
  • 1. Think about tying the shoelace of a sneaker. Construct a flowchart that shows what happens between your eyes and your brain, and between your brain and your hands, when you tie a bow in the shoelace.
  • Students’ flowcharts should include: The eyes inform the brain about the position of the hands and the shoelace; the brain signals the hands how to move to begin to tie the bow; and so on.
  • 2. How would the communications be different if you tried to tie the shoelace with your eyes closed?
  • All information about the position of the shoelace would have to come from the hands as they feel and manipulate the shoelace.
section 3 answers

Interest Grabber Answers

  • 1. Which brainlike functions can already be performed by computers?
  • Computation and data sorting
  • 2. Which brainlike functions cannot be performed by computers?
  • Original thought and perception of emotions
  • 3. How successful do you think you (or anyone) could be in designing a computer that can perform all the functions of the human brain? Explain your answer.
  • Students will likely say not successful, because a computer cannot be designed to feel emotions.
Section 3 Answers
section 4 answers

Interest Grabber Answers

  • 1. List ten things you observe about the room you are in.
  • Students will likely describe the shape and color of the room, what is written on the chalkboard, whether doors or windows are open, how bright the lighting is, the temperature, ticking of a clock, rustling of papers, and so on.
  • 2. Next to each observation, write the sense that you used to make that observation.
  • Most observations are likely to be based on sight and hearing. If students list only visual observations, have them make some observations with their eyes closed.
  • 3. What sense did you use most?
  • Possible answer: sight
Section 4 Answers
section 5 answers

Interest Grabber Answers

  • 1. Complete a brief sketch of your idea on a sheet of paper. What effects of drugs does your poster depict?
  • Possible answer: negative effects on the brain, which may result in various types of injuries or death.
  • 2. Why do you think teenagers will pay attention to your poster?
  • Answers will depend on the design of the poster. Teenagers may respond to concern about loss of mental or athletic ability or concern about possible injuries.
Section 5 Answers
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