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World History Mr. P aulson. Tuesday Sep. 14, 2010. Daily Agenda. Spark # 16 Pass back yesterday Notes overview-2 C sheet Map. Spark #16. 1 . Using the timeline on p. 86-87 and 89 answer the following: What happened in 610 c.e ? What happened in 635 c.e .?

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daily agenda
Daily Agenda
  • Spark # 16
  • Pass back yesterday
  • Notes overview-2 C sheet
  • Map
spark 16
Spark #16
  • 1. Using the timeline on p. 86-87 and 89 answer the following:
    • What happened in 610 c.e?
    • What happened in 635 c.e.?
    • Who came to power in 661 ce? In 750 ce? In 1250 ce?
    • What happened in 852 c.e.? Where?
  • 2. What are the 5 major beliefs of Islam?
  • 3. Read the quote on p. 89
    • What did the write know by age 16?
key objectives b e on the lookout for these
Key Objectives: Be on the lookout for these!!!
  • Main Ideas:
    • Religion of Islam: Arabian peninsula, early 600s
    • Muhammad’s successors and expansion
    • Extensive trade network and big $$$
  • Key Terms: Islam, Hijrah, Caliph, Sultan, astrolabe, mosque
  • Key People: Muhammad, Abu Bakr, IbnSina
  • Key Places: Arabian Peninsula, Mecca (Makkah), Medinah (Madinah), Damascus, Baghdad
the arabs
The Arabs
  • Lived on the Arabian Peninsula
  • Were “nomads”
    • Moved to find food and water
  • Populated desert after domesticating the camel
  • Made towns on trade routes in desert
  • Trace ancestors to Abraham and son Ishmael-Mecca and the Kaaba
  • Recognized Allah and tribal gods
the life of muhammed
The Life of Muhammed
  • Born: Mecca - son in a merchant family
  • Caravan manager
  • Received revelations from God (Rammadan)
  • Quran (Koran)
  • “Islam” – “peace through submission to the will of Allah”
  • Those who practice called Muslims
  • Religious AND political leader
  • Hijrah-pilgrimage to Medina in 622 c.e.
the teachings of muhammed
The Teachings of Muhammed
  • Monotheistic
  • Emphasize salvation and hope of after-life
  • Muhammad as: messenger, prophet, man
  • Stress need to obey Allah
  • 5 pillars are the key
    • 1. Prayer 5 x /day 2. Charity 3. Fasting-Ramadan 4. Pilgrimage-Hajj 5. Belief-declaration
creation of an arab empire
Creation of an Arab Empire
  • Muhammad dies-does not name successor
  • Father-in-law, Abu Bakr becomes “Caliph”-successor
  • Expand across Arabia and beyond –
  • Large army-warriors believed death in battle secured place in paradise-afterlife
  • Defeated Byzantine army at Yarmuk 636
  • Again, no clear successor
  • P. 91
successors of the arab empire
Successors of the Arab Empire
  • Umayyads
  • Abbasid Dynasty
  • The Seljuk Turks
  • The Mongols
successors of the arab empire1
Successors of the Arab Empire
  • Umayyads
  • 661 Mu’awiyah (governor of Syria) becomes Caliph
  • Makes Caliphate hereditary-this is “dynasty”
  • Moved capital of empire from Medinah to Damascus, Syria
  • Won victories and expanded in North Africa and Spain
  • By 725 Spain is muslim
  • Expansion halted in Tours (France) and Constantinople (Turkey)
successors of the arab empire2
Successors of the Arab Empire
  • The Abbasid Dynasty
  • 750 Abu al-Abbas – descendant of Muhammad’s uncle
  • Overthrows Umayyads-sets up Abbasid dynasty
  • In power until 1258
  • Built new capital in Baghdad on Tigris River (on caravan route from Med to Asia
  • Huge, wealthy trade empire
    • Asia, Africa, and Europe
  • Factions-splintering empire-Fatimids in Cairo, Egypt
successors of the arab empire3
Successors of the Arab Empire
  • The Seljuk Turks
  • Fatimid Dynasty in Cairo, Egypt becomes center of Islamic empire (973a.d.)
  • Seljuks hired by Fatimids to serve in army
  • Abbasids weaken, Seljusturks strengthen
  • 1055ad Turkish leader captures Baghdad
    • Calls himself- “Sultan”-”holder of power”
  • Abbasid caliph still in religious power, but Seljuks held real military and political power
successors of the arab empire4
Successors of the Arab Empire
  • The Mongols
  • Pastoral people- farmers
  • Gobi desert 13th century
  • Ghengis Khan-north China spread across Asia
  • Mongols conquer Persia and Mesopotamia-destroy Baghdad in 1258
  • Eventually converted to Islam
  • Splintering again-empire fades
  • Cairo, Egypt center of Islamic civilization
economy and social structure
Economy and Social Structure
  • Various rulers but always lots of trade
  • Crossroads between Europe, Africa, and Asia (the East)
  • Chnia, Byzantines, North African Kingdoms, India, Southeast Asia
  • Ship, camel caravans
  • Slaves, gold, ivory from Africa, Silk from China, Spices from Southeast Asia
  • Baghdad, Cairo
the brilliance of islamic culture
The Brilliance of Islamic Culture
  • Philosophy and Science
  • Greek philosophers translated into Arabic
    • Plato and Socrates
    • Long before Europe catches on
  • Helped by invention of paper – China- 8th century
  • Ibn-Rushd-commentaries on Plato
  • Mathematics, Natural Sciences, numerical system of India-use of “0”
  • Astronomy-Baghdad observatory
    • Knew earth was round, named many stars
  • Perfected astrolabe-navigational instrument
    • Enabled sailors to determine location based on stars and planets-Euros to America!!!
the brilliance of islamic culture1
The Brilliance of Islamic Culture
  • Art and Architecture
  • Art is blend of Arab, Turkish, and Persian styles
  • Best art found in Mosques
  • Mosque of Samarra -848-852 in Baghdad covers 10 acres
  • Minaret-tower, crier calls muslims to prayer