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Important announcement. Another quiz for extra credit will be held on 9/20. There will be no exam on 9/22; rather there will be a regular class session. Most of the quizzes for extra credit will be pop-ups, so please get your own scantrons and pencils everyday to class.

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important announcement

Important announcement

Another quiz for extra credit will be held on 9/20. There will be no exam on 9/22; rather there will be a regular class session.

Most of the quizzes for extra credit will be pop-ups, so please get your own scantrons and pencils everyday to class.

You can gain a maximum of 2 points on these pop-ups.

The next exam is scheduled on 10/4

heredity and environment
Heredity and environment
  • Gene-gene, gene-environment interaction
  • Genetic composition of mono and di- zygotic twins
  • Disorders and diseases influenced by genes
  • Chromosomal & genetic abnormalities
gene gene interactions
Gene - Gene Interactions

Multifactoral traits—inherited traits produced by interaction of genes and environment

Genes merely produce proteins, not mature traits.

Without genes, no behavior would exists. But without environment no gene would be expressed.

Polygenetic traits—inherited traits produced by gene interaction

Additive, dominant recessive, on-off mechanisms.

slide4
Genotype: the genetic make-up of a trait

Phenotype: the actual expression of a trait

Careers are the genes in our genotype which is not expressed in out phenotype.

Behavior genetics: is the study of what amount of out personality is determined by our genes

genetic make up multiple zygotes
Genetic make-up: Multiple Zygotes

Monozygotic twins—identical twins originate from one zygote & share identical instructions

Dyzygotic or fraternal: fertilization for two different ova. share no more genes than other offspring (about 50 percent)

women in late 30’s are three times more likely to have dizygotic twins. As menopause approaches, ovulation becomes irregular with some cycles produce no ova while others produce multiple ovas

diseases and disorders
Most of the diseases are carriers or an outcome of multiple alleles

Alzheimer’s disease

Schizophrenia

Personality disorders: inherited bio-chemistry predisposes to these disorders

Alcoholism, psychopathology, etc

Diseases and disorders
alcoholism cont
Alcoholism, cont.

it is psychological and physical, and biological;

thus alcoholism is polygenetic, with alcoholics inheriting a combination of biochemistry-affecting and temperament-affecting genes

Culture counts too(whether alcohol is present in environment)

chromosomal abnormalities
A gamete with more than or less than 23 chromosomes creates a zygote with chromosomal abnormalities

most likely variable that creates chromosomal abnormalities is mother’s age (over 35)

father’s age (over 40) also a variable

Chromosomal Abnormalities
down syndrome
Three chromosomes at chromosome #21 (trisomy-21)

A think tongue, round face, slanted eyes

Distinctive hands, feet and fingerprints

Heart-problems, week muscles and small built.

Intellectual attinment varies from mild to severe.

Hardly live beyond the age of 40

Down Syndrome
abnormalities of the 23rd pair
Location of sex chromosome

Kleinfelters syndrome—XXY

Occurs in males

seemingly normal child has delayed puberty

Small penis and enlarged breasts.

Abnormalities of the 23rd Pair
genetic abnormality
Genetic abnormality
  • When genes code for wrong proteins or fail to code for protective proteins.
  • PKU or phenylketonuria
    • Abnormal digestion of protein
    • Mental retardation, hyperactivity
    • Preventable by diet
  • Hemophilia
    • Absence of clotting factor in blood
    • Death from excessive bleeding