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11. Business and Technology. 11-1 Computer Systems 11-2 Business Applications of Technology 11-3 Other Technology Issues. ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM. Input Processing Memory and storage Output. Nearly every business uses some type of computer !

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Business and technology

11

Business and Technology

11-1 Computer Systems

11-2 Business Applications of Technology

11-3 Other Technology Issues


Elements of a computer system
ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM

  • Input

  • Processing

  • Memory and storage

  • Output

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Business and technology

  • Nearly every business uses some type of computer!

  • The physical elements of a computer system are called the hardware.

    • Examples: keyboards, cameras, microphones, speakers, monitors, chips and printers.

  • Software refers to the instructions that run the computer system.

    • Examples: word processing, spreadsheet, database, presentation and communications programs.

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Computer networks
COMPUTER NETWORKS

  • Global computer network (Internet)

    • For accessing the World Wide Web

    • For exchanging e-mail

  • Local computer network (intranet) – is an organization’s private computer network.

    • Functions like a typical Web site

    • Used to share information within an organization

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Business and technology

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Business and technology

How a computer makes things happen! input.

Central Processing Unit – is the control center of the computer – “the brain”

Two main types of computer programs

Operating System Software – translates commands and allows application programs to interact with the computer’s hardware. – “Windows”

Application Software – refers to programs that perform specific tasks.

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Input and processing
INPUT AND PROCESSING input.

  • Input: getting started

  • Processing: making things happen

    • Word processing- An organizations reports, correspondence, and other information is created in word processing. You can enter, store, revise, and print text for letters, memos, reports, or standard business forms. Example: Word

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  • Desktop publishing- input. word processing that is expanded to produce newsletters, brochures, and other publications. Usually includes graphics software to prepare charts, graphs and other visual elements.

    Example: Publisher

  • Database software – an organized collection of information with data items related to one another in some way.

  • Spreadsheet software – in the past, accountants used worksheet paper with many rows and columns. This software formats data in columns and rows in order to do calculations. Example - Excel

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Business and technology

  • Presentation software- input. allows a speaker to show text, data, photos, and other visuals. These images may be accompanied by sound effects, music, or other audio. The use of multimedia elements add to the value and enjoyment of presentations.

    • Example: PowerPoint

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Memory and output
MEMORY AND OUTPUT input.

  • Memory and storage: saving for later

  • Output: obtaining results -

    • Text

    • Graphics

    • Audio

    • Video

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Do you see how the following slide shows functions that are important for decision-making and how they are interconnected?

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Management information systems
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS important for decision-making and how they are interconnected?

Government

Customers

GatheringData

Accounting

Inventory

Sales

ReportingData

AnalyzingData

StoringData

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Management information system
Management Information System important for decision-making and how they are interconnected?

  • Management Information System (MIS) – is an ordered system of processing and reporting information in an organization.

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Components of an mis
COMPONENTS OF AN MIS important for decision-making and how they are interconnected?

  • Gathering data

  • Analyzing data

  • Sorting data

  • Reporting results

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These activities allow an organization to obtain needed information in four main categories
These activities allow an organization to obtain needed information in four main categories:

  • Financial Information, including budgets, sales reports, and financial statements

  • Production and inventory information, including production summaries, lists of tools and supplies, and finished goods reports

  • Marketing and sales information, data on customer needs, current economic conditions, actions of competitors

  • Human resource information, including salaries, benefit data, employee evaluations

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Data sources
DATA SOURCES information in four main categories:

  • External data sources – outside an organization. Examples: financial institutions, government agencies, and customers

  • Internal data sources – within an organization. Examples: accounting records, inventory information, company sales figures.

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The mis in action
THE MIS IN ACTION information in four main categories:

1. Identify the information needs of the organization.

2. Obtain facts, figures, and other data.

3. Process, analyze, and organize data in a useful manner.

4. Distribute information reports to those who make decisions.

5. Update data files as needed.

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Business and technology

TECHNOLOGY IN information in four main categories:SERVICE INDUSTRIES – Over 60 percent of workers in the United States are employed in service industries. The use of computers in these organizations is extensive.

  • Public service

  • Education

  • Health care

  • Financial services

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E commerce
E-COMMERCE information in four main categories:

  • E-commerce - refers to conducting business transactions using the Internet or other technology.

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Types of e commerce
TYPES OF E-COMMERCE information in four main categories:

  • Business-to-Consumer (B2C) – expanded sales of products in different geographic markets – ex: Amazon, Dell

  • Business-to-Business (B2B) – online exchanges – ex: Ford and General Motors buying parts from online suppliers

  • Consumer-to-Business (C2B) – online transactions through price offers to businesses – ex: Priceline (make bids)

  • Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) – bartering and auctions – ex: Ebay

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E commerce matrix
E-COMMERCE MATRIX information in four main categories:

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E commerce activities
E-COMMERCE ACTIVITIES information in four main categories:

  • Providing product information

  • Promoting a company

  • Selling online

  • Conducting market research

  • Making payments

  • Obtaining parts and supplies

  • Tracking shipments

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Global e commerce
GLOBAL E-COMMERCE information in four main categories:

  • Importing and exporting

  • Videoconferencing – This system allows people in different geographic locations to meet “face-to-face” by satellite. Used for sales presentations, training sessions, and other types of meetings.

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Workplace technology
WORKPLACE TECHNOLOGY information in four main categories:

  • Robotics –involves mechanical devices programmed to do routine tasks, such as those in a many factories.

  • Expert systems – Artificial intelligence (AI) – software that enables computers to reason, learn, and make decisions. It uses logical methods similar to the methods humans use. Example: computer programs that make decisions about complex projects.

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  • Computer-aided design (CAD)- information in four main categories: refers to the use of technology to create product styles and designs. CAD allows you to try different sizes, shapes, and materials for a new machine, automobile, or food package.

  • Telecommuting – involves the activities of a worker using a computer at home to do a job. Telecommuting saves travel time and costs.

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Home and personal technology
HOME AND PERSONAL TECHNOLOGY information in four main categories:

  • School and homework – 1/3 of homework time involves the computer

  • Home robotics

  • Household record keeping

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Social concerns of technology
SOCIAL CONCERNS information in four main categories:OF TECHNOLOGY

  • Employment trends – Are computers taking over jobs?

  • Health concerns – Ex: eyestrain and vision problems have been linked with prolonged work at computer screens. Muscle tension and nerve damage can occur from too many hours at a keyboard.

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  • Computer crime information in four main categories:

    • White collar crime is illegal acts carried out by office or professional workers while at work. Workers may steal money, information, or computer time through improper use of databases or illegal access to computer systems.

    • Piracy – stealing or illegally copying software packages or information.

    • Computer virus – is program code hidden in a system that can later do damage to software or stored data.

  • Privacy concerns – identity theft

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