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RIP version 1. Routing Protocols and Concepts – Chapter 5 Sandra Coleman, CCNA, CCAI. Objectives. Describe the functions, characteristics, and operation of the RIPv1 protocol. Configure a device for using RIPv1. Verify proper RIPv1 operation.

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Rip version 1

RIP version 1

Routing Protocols and Concepts – Chapter 5

Sandra Coleman, CCNA, CCAI


Objectives
Objectives

  • Describe the functions, characteristics, and operation of the RIPv1 protocol.

  • Configure a device for using RIPv1.

  • Verify proper RIPv1 operation.

  • Describe how RIPv1 performs automatic summarization.

  • Configure, verify, and troubleshoot default routes propagated in a routed network implementing RIPv1.

  • Use recommended techniques to solve problems related to RIPv1

  • Turquoise text is test-worthy!


Ripv1
RIPv1

  • RIP Characteristics

    -Oldest distance vector protocol

    -A classful, Distance Vector (DV) routing protocol

    -Metric = hop count

    -Routes with a hop count > 15 are unreachable

    -16 hops = infinity

    -Updates are broadcast every 30 seconds

    -Calculates metrics using the Bellman Ford algorithm

    -Data portion is encapsulated into UDP segment


Ripv11
RIPv1

  • RIP Message Format

  • RIP header - divided into 3 fields

    -Command field

    -Version field

    -Must be zero

  • Route Entry - composed of 3 fields

    • -Address family identifier

    • -IP address

    • -Metric (hops)

  • RIPv2 uses most of the ‘must be zero’ space


Ripv12
RIPv1

  • RIP Operation

    • RIP uses 2 message types:

      • Request message

        -This is sent out on startup by each RIP enabled interface

        -Requests all RIP enabled neighbors to send routing table

      • Response message

        -Message sent to requesting router containing routing table


Ripv13
RIPv1

  • IP addresses initially divided into classes

    -Class A

    -Class B

    -Class C

  • RIP is a classful routing protocol

    -Does not send subnet masks in routing updates

    -A router either uses the SM configure on the local interface or applies the default subnet mask of the class

    -Can’t support discontiguous networks or VLSM


Ripv14
RIPv1

  • Administrative Distance

    • RIP’s default AD is 120 which makes it the least-preferred routing protocol (all others have a lower AD)


Basic ripv1 configuration
Basic RIPv1 Configuration

  • A typical topology suitable for use by RIPv1 includes:

    • -Three router set up

    • -No PCs attached to LANs

      -Use of 5 different IP subnets


Basic ripv1 configuration1
Basic RIPv1 Configuration

  • Router RIP Command

    • To enable RIP enter:

    • -Router rip at the global configuration prompt

    • -Prompt will look like R1(config-router)#

Notice that typing

Router ? At the prompt

Will show you ALL

Available routing protocols


Removing rip
Removing RIP

  • To completely remove RIP routing from a router, just type in the following command:

    • router(config)#no router rip

  • This command will STOP all rip processes and erase all existing RIP configurations!


Basic ripv1 configuration2
Basic RIPv1 Configuration

  • Specifying Networks (You have to be able to do this on the test!)

    • Use the network command to:

    • -Enable RIP on all interfaces that belong to this network

    • -Advertise this network in RIP updates sent to other routers every 30 seconds

    • -If you enter an IP address instead of a network address, RIP will include all interfaces in that CLASSFUL network in the routing process


Verification and troubleshooting
Verification and Troubleshooting

  • To verify and troubleshoot routing

    -Use the following commands:

    -show ip route

    -show ip protocols -debug ip rip


Routing tables
Routing tables

  • You will have to look at a topology and pick from a list routes that would appear in a routing table for a specific router in that topology. One thing you really need to pay attention to is whether it is a connected or RIP route and look at the metric…make sure it is correct!


Verification and troubleshooting1
Verification and Troubleshooting

  • show ip protocols command

    -Displays routing protocol configured on router

    Be able to interpret these on a test!


Marking invalid routes
Marking invalid routes

Refer to the routing table below. Notice the timer SINCE the last update. How long would it take to mark 192.168.1.0 INVALID if it went down? Invalid timer is 180 seconds. Subtract the time since the last update (5 seconds) and you get the answer! You will have to do this on the test as well!


Verification and troubleshooting2
Verification and Troubleshooting

  • Debug ip rip command (5.3.3 – online curriculum)

    -Used to display RIP routing updates as they are happening - USE undebug all to turn off ALL debugging!


Verification and troubleshooting3
Verification and Troubleshooting

  • Passive interface command

    -Used to prevent a router from sending updates through an interface -

    -Example:

    Router(config-router)#passive-interface interface-type interface-number

    Router(config-router)#passive-interface fa 0/0

  • When would you use this command? If you have an interface that has only END-USERS (LAN-Ethernet connection) connected, there is no need to broadcast routing updates to end-users. It WASTES bandwidth!

  • We only need to send routing update out interfaces where OTHER routers are found…but we do want the LANS to be included in the updates.

  • Passive interface prevents the transmission of routing updates through a router interface but still allows that network to be advertised to other routers



Automatic summarization
Automatic Summarization

Modified Topology

  • The original scenario has been modified such that:

    Three classful networks are used:

    172.30.0.0/16

    192.168.4.0/24

    192.168.5.0/24

    The 172.30.0.0/16 network is subnetted into three subnets:

    172.30.1.0/24

    172.30.2.0/24

    172.30.3.0/24

    The following devices are part of the 172.30.0.0/16 classful network address:

    All interfaces on R1

    S0/0/0 and Fa0/0 on R2


Automatic summarization1
Automatic Summarization

  • Configuration Details

    -To remove the RIP routing process use the following command

    No router rip

    -To check the configuration use the following command

    Show run


Automatic summarization2
Automatic Summarization

  • Boundary Routers

    • RIP automatically summarizes classful networks

    • Boundary routers summarize RIP subnets from one major network to another.

    • Because boundary routers summarize RIP subnets from one major network to the other, updates for the 172.30.1.0, 172.30.2.0 and 172.30.3.0 networks will automatically be summarized into 172.30.0.0 when sent out R2's Serial 0/0/1 interface.


Automatic summarization3
Automatic Summarization

Processing RIP Updates

  • 2 rules govern RIPv1 updates:

    -If a routing update and the interface it’s received on belong to the same network then The subnet mask of the interface is applied to the network in the routing update

    -If a routing update and the interface it’s received on belong to a different network then The classful subnet mask of the network is applied to the network in the routing update.

    RIPv1 DOES NOT send subnet mask information in its updates!


Automatic summarization4
Automatic Summarization

  • Sending RIP Updates

    • RIP uses automatic summarization to reduce the size of a routing table.


Automatic summarization5
Automatic Summarization

  • Advantages of automatic summarization:

    -The size of routing updates is reduced

    -Single routes are used to represent multiple routes which results in faster lookup in the routing table.


Automatic summarization6
Automatic Summarization

  • Disadvantage of Automatic Summarization:

    -Does not support discontiguous networks


Automatic summarization7
Automatic Summarization

  • Discontiguous Topologies do not converge with RIPv1

  • A router will only advertise major network addresses out interfaces that do not belong to the advertised route.


Default route and ripv1
Default Route and RIPv1

  • Modified Topology: Scenario C

  • Default routes

    • Packets that are not defined specifically in a routing table will go to the specified interface for the default route (AKA Gateway of last resort)

    • Example: Customer routers use default routes to connect to an ISP router.

    • Command used to configure a default route is

    • ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 s0/0/1



Default route and ripv12
Default Route and RIPv1

  • Propagating the Default Route in RIPv1

  • Default-information originate command

    • -This command is used to specify that the router is to originate default information, by propagating the static default route in RIP update.

Indicates a ‘default –information originate’ command from R2


Where to put default routes
Where to put default routes?

  • Default routes (0.0.0.0) and the ability to propagate these routes to others lies with the border router.

  • What is a border router? It is the router in your company that connects to your ISP.

  • So these commands belong on the border router!

    • ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 s0/0/1

    • Default-information originate

  • You should NEVER exchange routing updates with an ISP. You only set up a static route to them. Otherwise, you end up with a HUGE routing table, and all outgoing traffic still goes there anyway!


Equal cost paths
Equal Cost Paths

When you see routing table entries that have the same network listed with 2 different outgoing interfaces…know that these are 2 EQUAL COST PATHS.



Rip version 1

Ch. 5 is OVER…Hallelujah!

  • Study Guide –

    • Packet tracer exercise 5-2 pg. 200-201 (homework)

  • Labs –

    • 5-1 (scenario A & B only) – In class today! If you don’t finish, Do scenario B on Packet Tracer for extra practice

  • Online test for ch. 5 will be on until Sunday, Feb 24, 2013 @ midnight!

  • Test on ch. 5 will be on Monday, Feb 25, 2013

  • We will do EVERYTHING we can in class today…anything left, is homework and should be done and emailed to me before next Monday morning.