International Year of Chemistry 2011 UN Declaration In December 2008, the 63rd General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution proclaiming 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, placing UNESCO and IUPAC at the helm of the event. Theme: “Chemistry – our life, our future.”.
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In December 2008, the 63rd General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution proclaiming 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, placing UNESCO and IUPAC at the helm of the event.
“Chemistry – our life, our future.”
The year 2011 marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the International Association of Chemical Societies, as well as the year Madame Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize – which celebrates the contributions of women to science.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911 was awarded to Marie Curie "in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element".
(Together with her husband, she was awarded half of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903, for their study into the spontaneous radiation discovered by Becquerel, who was awarded the other half of the Prize. Her son-in-law and daughter (Frédéric Joliot and Irène Joliot-Curie) were also awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935 "in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements”).
The International year of Chemistry 2011 celebrates all of the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to the well-being of humankind.
The Year will give a global boost to chemical science, and hopefully increase the interest in chemistry among young people.
It aims to increase the public appreciation of chemistry in meeting world needs and to promote the future development of chemistry.
It is concerned with the composition, behaviour (or reaction), structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions.
It is a physical science which studies various substances, atoms, molecules, crystals and other aggregates of matter whether in isolation or combination, and which incorporates the concepts of energy and entropy in relation to the spontaneity of chemical processes.
Disciplines within Chemistry are traditionally grouped by the type of matter being studied or the kind of study. These include:
Many more specialized disciplines have also emerged, such as:
Chemistry is sometimes called “the central science" because it plays an important part in all of the other natural sciences, basic and applied.
Food: The world’s food production increased due to the discovery of hybrid varieties, insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers.
Health: Chemistry brought about medical revolution by discovering and synthesizing drugs (medicines). These advances resulted in improving people’s health and increasing the average life expectancy.
Quality of life: Quality of life on earth became better due to the discovery of dyes, plastics, cosmetics and other materials needed for modern life.
Excessive use and misuse of chemicals should be avoided to
eliminate/alleviate ill effects of Chemistry
PROFESSOR C. N. R. RAO, Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister, said:
To improve the quality of Chemistry in the country, both research and teaching must be given equal importance and emphasis.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994 was awarded to George A. Olah"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry".
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950 was awarded jointly to Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis“.
Why carbon (element on the logo of IYC) containing molecules are so important:
Carbon-carbon bonds are a prerequisite for all life on earth and they are found in proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
Plants and animals mainly consist of organic molecules in which carbon atoms bind to each other.
We human beings are to a large extent built up by carbon-carbon bonds.
In living organisms bonds between carbon atoms are created via Nature’s own pathways utilising various enzyme systems.
To create new organic molecules in an artificial manner that can be used as medicines, plastics, and various other materials, we need new efficient methods for synthesising carbon-carbon bonds in our laboratories.
There were 5 Nobel prizes to reward the synthesis of carbon-carbon bonds.
Physical / Theoretical Chemistry will also continue to be important, since in
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977 was awarded to IlyaPrigogine"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures“.
The energy changes when molecules of a coloured compound and of a colourless compound absorb light are illustrated below:
Apparent colour is caused by absorbing photons of a complementary colour
Quantum mechanics explains the existence of quantized energy levels. Using a simplest model of one-dimensional box model, it has been shown that the energy values of the quantized energy levels are given by the expression
, n = 1, 2, 3, …..
The difference between the energy levels is given by
As the length of a molecule, l, increases energy gap decreases. A molecule absorbs visible light when 0.6 nm < l < 0.8 nm
The tomato is red because of the carotenoid lycopene, which contains 11 conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds.
The pigment present in carrots is the betacarotene, with 9 linear conjugated double bonds, less than in lycopene so they are no red but orange (smaller wavelength than red).
The molecule responsible for green colour of leaf is chlorophyll (C55H70MgN4O6). It absorbs red and blue light from the sunlight. The light reflected from chlorophyll appears green. Chlorophyll is not a very stable compound.
Another pigment found in the leaves of many plants is carotene (C40H36). It absorbs blue-green and blue light. The light reflected from carotene appears yellow. Carotene is much more stable than chlorophyll. When chlorophyll disappears from a leaf, the remaining carotene causes the leaf to appear yellow.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915 was awarded to Richard Willstätter "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll“.
Like acid-base indicators this compound changes colour with pH.
Some flowers and fruits have cyanidins with varying numbers of –OH groups. A cyanidin with attached sugars is called anthocyanin and is responsible for red colour of roses.
How soap cleans?
There are substances which can be dissolved in water (salt for example), and others that can't (for example oil). Water and oil don't mix together, so if we try to clean an oily stain from a cloth or from the skin, water is not enough. We need soap.
Soap is formed by molecules with a "head" which likes water (hydrophilic) and a long chain which hates it (hydrophobic).
These are surfactants produced in the liver and stored in the gall-bladder (e.g. sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate) responsible for digestion
Surfactants responsible to decrease the surface tension at the lung walls (Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC))
Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)
Synthetic Surfactants:AnionicCationic NonionicZwitterionic (Ampholytic)Bolaform
Sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate (AOT) : A double – chain anionic surfactant
Because of this dualism, soap molecules act like a diplomat, improving the relationship between water and oil.
An emulsion of oil in water is then formed, this means that the oil particles become suspended and dispersed into the water. Thus, those oil particles are liberated from the cloth or the skin, and the emulsion is taken away with the rinsing.
(for equilibrium process)
(for spontaneous process)