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Innovation in Southeast Asia. Gernot Hutschenreiter Michael Keenan Country Studies and Outlook Division Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry. OUTLINE. Update on country reviews The review of Innovation in Southeast Asia Next steps – dissemination.

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innovation in southeast asia

Innovation in Southeast Asia

Gernot Hutschenreiter

Michael Keenan

Country Studies and Outlook Division

Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry

  • Update on country reviews
  • The review of Innovation in Southeast Asia
  • Next steps – dissemination

OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy

  • In 2005, the OECD Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy (CSTP) decided to launch a demand-driven programme of Country Reviews. Since then:
    • Completed: Luxembourg, Switzerland, New Zealand, South Africa, Chile, Norway, China, Hungary, Korea, Greece, Mexico, Russian Federation, Peru, Slovenia, Sweden
    • Ongoing and under launch: Vietnam, Croatia, Colombia
    • Others requested or under discussion
    • Regional reviews: Southeast Asia,Latin America Innovation Initiative , under discussion: MENA
  • Scope: Comprehensive analysis of the respective national innovation system (with a focus on the role of government policy)



OECD review of Innovation in Southeast Asia

  • This review is the first OECD innovation mapping in a trans-national region - In line with the decision by the OECD Ministerial Council Meeting 2007 to give high priority to outreach work with the SEA region
  • It has been welcomed and supported by the ASEAN Committee of Science and Technology (COST), numerous policy makers and experts have shared their knowledge and insights
  • Support by Germany and Japan, the SEA-EU-NET project (bi-regional S&T dialogue between Southeast Asia and EU) as well as Korea (in kind) is gratefully acknowledged
  • The review would not have been possible without the interest and support of Southeast Asian countries

OECD review of Innovation in Southeast Asia

  • The review of Innovation in Southeast Asia provides:
    • A cross-country regional synthesis highlighting economic trends with special reference to innovation; quantitative and qualitative mapping of current capacity and dynamics in S&T and innovation
    • A set of country profiles drawing on the OECD innovation policy review approach; they cover the performance and institutional profile of NIS and take account of the economic environment and framework conditions for innovation
  • The review of Innovation in Southeast Asia aims at:
    • Obtaining a more comprehensive understanding of key elements, relationships and dynamics of innovation in the SEA region, and the opportunities to enhance them
    • Provide a platform for future in-depth innovation policy reviews in the SEA region; a first example is the ongoing (joint OECD-World Bank) Review of Vietnam’s Innovation Policy
oecd review of innovation in southeast asia
OECD review of Innovation in Southeast Asia
  • Part I: Regional Synthesis
    • Economic Development and Performance
    • Science and Technology Performance and Linkages
    • Business Sector Innovation
    • Innovation and the Role of Government
  • Part II: Country profiles
    • Cambodia
    • Indonesia
    • Malaysia
    • Singapore
    • Thailand
    • Vietnam
  • Annex:
    • Economic Relations between China and SEA Countries: Science, Technology and Innovation Issues: a Chinese Perspective

Growth of GDP in sevenworldregions, 1980-2010

  • .

Note: In constant 2000 US dollars. No estimation is made for missing data..

Source:World Bank.

fdi into asean thomsen et al 2011 updates
FDI into ASEAN(Thomsen et al., 2011; updates)

Cumulative FDI inflows

in ASEAN, 1990-2009

FDI inflows to ASEAN, China and India (USD billion)

Catch-up with the United States 1970-2010Level and average annual growth rate of GDP at constant market prices, using 2005 PPPs

Source: Asian Productivity Organization (APO) Databook 2012 [APO (2012)]


Labour productivity gap relative to the US, 2010In percentage points

  • .

Note: at constant market prices, using 2005 PPPs

Sources:APO (2012) based on official national accounts, including adjustments.

driving forces of economic growth are shifting
Driving forces of economic growth are shifting
  • Non-IT capital accumulation most important, especially during early stages of industrialisation and catching up
  • Its contribution is still important but became smaller over time
  • Role of IT capital accumulation and TFP growth increasing over time
  • China’s sustained TFP growth
trade structural change and global value chains gvcs
Trade, structural change and global value chains (GVCs)
  • International trade:
      • Highly open economies
      • Maintained share in global export markets in the long term
      • Integration: Potential ASEAN single market of 600 million; ASEAN+
  • Structural change:
      • Move away from labour-intensive, low-wage production (but newly emerging such as Viet Nam, partly replacing China and SEA middle-income economies) towards more technologically advanced
      • Specialisation and innovation .... learning vs. lock-in
      • High demand for raw materials
  • GVCs:
      • “Unbundling”, SEA increasingly embedded in GVCs
      • Position in GVCs shapes trade structures, e.g. in electronic / electrical goods, automotive, textiles – and opportunities
      • Transformation of the structure of GVCs, geographical etc.
      • Related to (export-promoting) FDI

ASEAN share in world exports, 1990-2010

Source: UNESCAP database, 2011.


VerticalSpecialisation in East Asia –

  • increasingimportscontentofexports
  • .

Source: OECD Input-Output Tables, 2010 and IDE-JESTRO, 2005.


Major Trade partners for Asia's intermediate exports in goods and services

Source: Yamano, Mang and Fukasaku (2010); OECD (2011).


International specialisation (RCA – total exports)and price/quality competition, 2010

  • ..


Source:OECD calculations based on CEPII, BACI database.

impact of china
Impact of China
  • Aggregate growth of China’s economy (and global economic environment):
      • Overall positive impact, high demand for a broad range of imports from SEA
      • Differential impact on SEA countries depending on comparative advantage; “reshaping industrial landscapes”
  • Growth and composition of China’s exports, improved manufacturing capabilities:
      • Increased competition in areas characterised by more advanced manufacturing (primarily in middle-income economies)
      • Import replacement through improved “backward integration”
      • Establishment of own global brands (e.g., ICT industries)
  • Attractiveness to FDI :
      • Export-related FDI
      • R&D-related FDI
southeast asia s innovation imperative
Southeast Asia’s innovation imperative
  • Dynamic interaction with China and others:
      • Results for SEA economies depend on own innovation capabilities, even under different scenarios
  • Innovation weaknesses of SEA economies:
      • Infrastructure, framework conditions
      • Mostly very low investment in S&T and innovation
      • Indigenous innovation capabilities remain relatively weak overall (compared to 1st generation East Asian Tiger economies: Korea et al.)
      • Lack of regional or global brands
framework conditions for innovation infrastructure
Framework conditions for innovation: Infrastructure
  • Various infrastructures enable innovation
  • Even the most basic infrastructure is missing in some of the LDCs
  • But the high and middle-income countries have made impressive strides in developing their infrastructure over the last 30 years

Internet users as a percentage of

the population (2011) (ITU)

framework conditions for innovation regulation world bank doing business indicators for start ups
Framework conditions for innovation: RegulationWorld Bank “Doing Business” indicators for start-ups
human capital for innovation
Human capital for innovation
  • Many skills sets important for innovation
  • At the basic level, adult literacy rates are high
  • Secondary enrolment rates are more mixed
  • Engineering skills are particularly important in catching-up, but remain under-developed
tertiary education
Tertiary education
  • Tertiary education – in academic and vocational skills – is essential for technological upgrading
  • Enrolment rates in tertiary education vary significantly within the region with the level of development
  • Reflecting the state of development in many countries, the proportion of public expenditure on tertiary education from education budgets tends to be rather low

R&D and innovation

  • GERD as a percentage of GDP in selected countries
  • .


r d performers
R&D performers
  • There is a strong intra-regional variation in the weight of the business sector in R&D performance; where BERD is comparable to OECD levels, MNEs tend to be dominant performers
  • There is wide variety in the relative weight of HEIs and PRIs in performing R&D – in those countries that are more technologically advanced and have significant R&D activities in firms, HEIs dominate. In those with weaker firm performance, PRIs are more dominant
scientific publications have grown in volume
Scientific publications have grown in volume . . .
  • The region has shown strong growth in scientific publications and now accounts for around 4% of the world share (up from 2.5% 10 years ago)
  • Despite its small size, Singapore accounts for a disproportionate volume of papers, followed by Thailand and Malaysia
  • Indonesia produces very few publications for the size of its scientific community – the largest in ASEAN
  • Many countries have, however, outpaced Singapore in their publication growth, though often from low initial levels
and are relatively highly cited and show strong international linkages
. . . and are relatively highly cited and show strong international linkages
  • Since 2005, average relative citation rates are above the world average, though this is more a reflection of Singapore’s growing strong performance
  • The region has the highest levels of international scientific collaboration in the world, as measured by joint authorship
innovation at different stages of development
Innovation at different stages of development
  • Less developed:
      • Significance of non-technological innovation
      • Technology adoption, incl. “embodied technology” imports (machinery and equipment); some adaptation
      • Anticipating of steps in development to avoid lock-in in low value-adding activity; little learning
  • Middle income:
      • Innovation (incl. in “high-tech” sectors) often largely residing in MNEs
      • Sometimes less efficient government enterprises; lack of competition
      • Spillovers to other parts of the economy, esp. local suppliers, “backward integration” are critical
      • Challenge of developing advanced innovation capabilities, including around integration, branding, etc.; to diversify and move into new value-adding production
  • Advanced:
      • Increased significance of formal R&D activity; fostering excellence in S&T and education
      • Access to leading-edge knowledge, e.g. local research centres, but also international R&D linkages

Thank you for your attention