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SOCIETY AND SOCIAL CLASS The S ocialization Process Social Processes and The Family Family Structures and Functions Mate Selection Divorce. THEORIES ABOUT THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS. The SOCIALIZATION PROCESS. SIGMUND FREUD http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=NCXynjpFaKU
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SOCIETY AND SOCIAL CLASS • The Socialization Process • Social Processes and The Family • Family Structures and Functions • Mate Selection • Divorce
THEORIES ABOUT THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS The SOCIALIZATION PROCESS • SIGMUND FREUD http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NCXynjpFaKU • Believed the socialization centered on the person's unconscious mind • He felt there were three parts to personality • ID • A person’s basic drives which are unconscious and demand immediate attention • EGO • A person’s conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure seeking drives with the demands of society • SUPEREGO • The cultural values and norms internalized by society
THEORIES ABOUT THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS The SOCIALIZATION PROCESS • GEORGE MEAD http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWCt5zI43Ko • A felt socialization happened in three stages • STAGE ONE • Children watch the behaviour of others and imitate them • STAGE TWO • Children imitate adult behaviours when they pretend to be the teacher, the doctor, the fireman • STAGE THREE • By age 10, children enter the game stage where they understand the rules and different roles with a team
THEORIES ABOUT THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS The SOCIALIZATION PROCESS • AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION • Specific individuals, groups and institutions that provide situations in which socialization can occur • LAWRENCE KOHLBERG http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgjuS6O7ji8 • The cognitive development theory of socialization • He felt that children needed to master the skills needed to cope with the world around them • As they explored and became part of a group, they looked for experiences that would help them understand how people behave and interact with each other
THE FUNCTIONS OF THE FAMILY • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nOng7C5rRhU SOCIAL PROCESSES AND THE FAMILY • Sociologists list four main functions of the family: • Regulation of sexual activity • All societies have rules about sexual activity • Reproduction • Societies need to replace members who die or move away • Socialization • Most agree the family is the first agent of socialization • Economic and emotional security • Family is the most basic economic unit in society and our primary emotional support
FAMILY STRUCTURES • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZUqkJFBkW_c SOCIAL PROCESSES AND THE FAMILY • NUCLEAR FAMILY • Consists of adult heterosexual couple and their dependent children • EXTENDED FAMILIES • Include the nuclear family plus blood relatives living together • VERTICAL FAMILIES • includes grandparents as well parents and children • HORIZONTAL FAMILIES • Includes some members of the same generation as the parents living together • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=POofYM4ZiKg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9RMVIO4nmPc
MARRIAGE AND THE SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESSES AND THE FAMILY • MARRIAGE AND SOCIETY • All societies have some sort of family organization but the exact nature of that organization varies from society to society, sometimes even within the same society • MARRIAGE PARTNERS • Monogamy • Marriage of one man to one woman • Polygamy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ANXeiyGx7To • Marriage with multiple partners http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0gyKWYb_OXw • Polygyny • A man is permitted to marry more than one woman as a time http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fk8inFlY7Rs&playnext=1&list=PL11BD146E57233BDF&feature=results_video • Polyanandryhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yjrDSvze0 • A woman is permitted to marry more than one man at a time
MARRIAGE AND THE SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESSES AND THE FAMILY • RESIDENTIAL PATTERNS • NEOLOCAL • In modern industrial societies it is most common for married couples to be free to set up their own residence apart from both sets of parents • PATRILOCALITY • Where a couple live with or near the husband's parents • MATRILOCALITY • Where a couple live with or near the wife’s parents
MARRIAGE AND THE SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESSES AND THE FAMILY • MATE SELECTION • ROMANTIC LOVE • People who are emotional and physically attracted to each other • ARRANGED MARRIAGEhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kaNHO1mvCiE • Marriage arranged by others, typically your parents • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VUvrCaesLDs • ENDOMGAMY • Marrying someone within your social status • EXOGAMY • Marriage outside one’s social category • HOMOGAMY • Marriage within one’s own racial group • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q52MVJI_njA
THEORIES OF MATE SELECTION • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BvjF5RyoKzI SOCIAL PROCESSES AND THE FAMILY • PARENTAL IMAGE • People are guided by the image they hold of their parents, especially the parent of the opposite sex • ROLE THEORY • Based on role expectations, a man who believes a woman’s place is in the home would be unlikely to marry a career woman • VALUES • Mates tend to be chosen on the basis of similar values • COMPLEMENTARY NEEDS • Believes that martial gratification occurs when the needs of the husband and the wife are complimentary instead of similar • FILTER THEORY • Factors like religion and social class narrow the field then other factors further narrow the field like smokingor divorce
DIVORCE • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-1ZJOAkX3o SOCIAL PROCESSES AND THE FAMILY • In some societies divorce is painless • As attitudes have changed, there is reduced social stigma which has contributed to the increasing divorce rate • The shifting roles of husbands and wives with increased financial pressure to have dual incomes has also increased relational stress • Divorce which allows a spouse to leave a partner involved in deviant behaviour may be positive
DIVORCE AND THE CHANGING FAMILY SOCIAL PROCESSES AND THE FAMILY • ANNUAL NUMBER OF DIVORCES IN CANADA • 71,00 • MARRIAGES THAT WON'T MEET THEIR 50th WEDDING ANNIVERSARY • 43% • HIGHEST AND LOWEST MARRIAGE RATES IN CANADA • Newfoundland 55%, Quebec 38% • TOP REASONS FOR DIVORCE( Stats Canada) • Relationship “runs out of steam”/fall out of • love • Communication breakdown • Unreasonable behaviour • Infidelity • Midlife crisis • Financial issues • Physical, psychological, or emotional abuse
DIVORCE AND THE CHANGING FAMILY • http://www.separation.ca/pdfs/divorcefacts.pdf SOCIAL PROCESSES AND THE FAMILY • PERCENTAGE OF DIVORCES THAT GO TO TRIAL • 1-5% • BUSIEST MONTH FOR DIVORCE • January, results from not wanting to spoil holidays for children, New Years resolutions • PERCENTAGE OF DIVORCES INTITATED BY WOMEN • 66% • PERENTAGE OF SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES HEADED BY WOMEN IN POVERTY • 52% • PERCENTAGE OF DIVORCED WOMEN WHO HAVE BEEN VICTIMS OF ABUSE • 50%
DIVORCE AND THE CHANGING FAMILY • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SnNFW3IIvcc SOCIAL PROCESSES AND THE FAMILY • ESTIMATED CHILDREN AFFECTED BY DIVORCE IN CANADA • 35% • PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY CHILDREN OF DIVORCED COUPLES • More alcohol and marijuana use • More problems with peers, authority figures • Children are less likely to marry and more likely to divorce • DROPOUT RATES FOR CHILDREN OF DIVORCED COUPLES • 2 to 3 times the rate of married family children • ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, AND SELF –ESTEEM ISSUES OF CHILDREN OF DIVORCE • Twice the rate of married family children • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dB3chibPz8Y
THE CHANGING FAMILY SOCIAL PROCESSES AND THE FAMILY • The Impacts of Divorce on Students • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzmiSjycGm0 • Invisible Moms: Single Mothers and Child Poverty in Canada • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owyPWAja70Q • Interracial families changing America • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pa3Ospkeyng • The Effects of Divorce on Men • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nm12hCrKVps • The Changing face of the Canadian Family • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ugpYlgBQSGQ