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Reproductive System

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  1. Reproductive System

  2. Purpose of Male Reproductive System • Spermatogenesis • Propel sperm to egg

  3. Functions: Copulation Penis

  4. Functions: Transport urine & semen Bladder Urethra

  5. Function: Maintain temperature of testes approx. 30 C below normal body temp.Controlled by cremaster Scrotum

  6. Function: Produce sperm and testosterone Testis

  7. Function: Produce Sperm Seminiferous Tubules Testis

  8. Testis Cross Section

  9. Seminiferous Tubules Cross Section

  10. Function: Sperm storage and maturation Epididymis

  11. Function: Transport sperm to urethra Vas Deferens

  12. Ejaculatory Duct Function: Produce 60% of alkaline semen including fructose to provide energy for sperm. Seminal Vesicles

  13. Function: Produces up to 20% of the semen & includes nutrients & enzymes to activate sperm, alkaline, opaque whitish. Prostate

  14. Function: Secretes mucous & alkaline buffers to neutralize acidic conditions of urethra. Cowper’s Gland

  15. vs. Meet Greg the Sperm

  16. Erectile Dysfunction

  17. Purpose of Female Reproductive System • Oogenesis • Nurture egg

  18. Function: Receives penis & semen and serves as birth canal & passage for menstrual flow. Vagina

  19. Function: Provides passageway for sperm, receives blastocyst, retains & nourishes fetus & expells fetus at term. Uterus

  20. Function: Cervical mucosa secretes mucous blocking cervical canal entrance to uterus. Cervix

  21. Function: Uterine lining in which implantation occurs. Endometrium

  22. Function: Muscular contractions. Myometrium

  23. Function: Passageway for oocyte and site of fertilization. UterineTubes

  24. Function: Produce oocytes & the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Ovaries

  25. Function: Sweep ovarian surface to draw oocyte into ovarian tube. Fimbriae

  26. Mechanisms of Hormonal Action • Direct Gene Activation • lipid soluble, steroid hormones • diffuse through cell membranes • bind to intracellular receptor • activated hormone receptor/complex binds with gene, turning it on • gene transcribes mRNA • ribosomes use mRNA to synthesize enzymes to stimulate cell activity or synthesize structural proteins to be excreted or used within the cell

  27. Hormone Sources & Functions • Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH): • Source: Hypothalamus • Targets & Functions: • Females & Males - Anterior Pituitary • Stimulates the production of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) & Leutinizing Hormone (LH) • Regulates the release of FSH & LH by the anterior pituitary gland

  28. Hormone Sources & Functions • Follicle Stimulating Hormone: • Source: Anterior Pituitary • Targets & Functions: • Females - Ovaries • Stimulates follicle growth & maturation • Stimulates estrogen production • Males - Seminiferous Tubules • Promotes sperm production (Spermatogenesis) by establishing testosterone receptors on tubules

  29. Leutenizing Hormone: • Source: Anterior Pituitary • Targets & Functions: • Females - Ovaries • Stimulates primary oocyte to complete first meiotic division to become secondary oocyte • Triggers ovulation of secondary oocyte • Transforms ruptured follicle into corpus luteum • Stimulates production of progesterone by corpus luteum • Males - Seminiferous Tubules • Stimulates sperm production (Spermatogenesis) by causing interstitial cells in testes to secrete testosterone Corpus luteum

  30. Estrogen: • Targets & Functions: • Body in general • Stimulates the development of female secondary sexual characteristics • Sources: Maturing Follicles & Corpus Luteum • Uterus • Stimulates proliferative phase of uterine cycle • Ovaries • Promotes oogenesis • Breasts • Stimulates development of milk ducts and sinuses (ampullae) • Anterior Pituitary • Stimulates burst-like release of LH

  31. Corpus luteum Progesterone: • Source: Corpus Luteum & Placenta • Targets & Functions: • Females - Uterus • Maintains thickened endometrium • Stimulates nutrient release • Quiets myometrium • Females - Breasts • Stimulates development of alveoli for milk production • Females - Anterior Pituitary • Inhibits production & release of FSH & LH

  32. Testosterone: • Targets & Functions: • Body in general • Stimulates the development of male secondary sexual characteristics including: • development of male genitalia • male skeleton and muscle development • male patterns for hair growth • increased RBC production & higher metabolic rate • Sources: Interstitial Cells in Testes • Seminiferous tubules • Necessary for the completion of spermatogenesis • Anterior Pituitary • Moderate inhibition of pituitary and hypothalamus

  33. Oxytocin: • Sources: Manufactured by hypothalamus. Stored & released by Posterior Pituitary • Positive Feedback Mechanisms: • 1. Childbirth - Stretching of uterus and cervix • 2. Suckling - Milk letdown reflex • Targets & Functions: • Uterus • Stimulates contraction of uterine myometrium causing lowering of fetus & labor • Breasts • Stimulates contraction of milk ducts and sinuses, releasing milk

  34. Prolactin: • Source: Anterior Pituitary • Targets & Functions: • Breasts • Stimulates alveoli of breasts to produce milk • Regulation • Release of prolactin by anterior pituitary is regulated by hypothalamus production of Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH) & Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone (PIH)

  35. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: • Source: Trophoblasts of blastocyst & Chorion • Target & Functions: • Corpus Luteum • Maintains corpus luteum & causes it to continue producing progesterone in the absence of LH through first four months of pregnancy till placenta produces sufficient estrogen & progesterone to maintain the pregnancy

  36. Hormonal Regulation of Ovarian & Menstrual Cycles 1. Hypothalamus releases GnRH. 2. GnRH stimulates anterior pituitary to release FSH. Estrogen FSH 3. FSH stimulates a follicle to grow & produce estrogen.

  37. Hormonal Regulation of Menstrual & Ovarian Cycles LH 4. Rising levels of estrogen cause anterior pituitary to increase production & storage of LH. Estrogen Estrogen FSH

  38. Hormonal Regulation of Menstrual & Ovarian Cycles 5. High estrogen causes LH to be released in a burst & the endometrium to thicken (proliferative phase). Estrogen Estrogen FSH 6. High LH stimulates first meiotic division of primary oocyte. LH

  39. Hormonal Regulation of Menstrual & Ovarian Cycles 7. High LH triggers ovulation. Estrogen Estrogen 8. High LH causes ruptured follicle to become a corpus luteum. FSH LH

  40. X X Hormonal Regulation of Menstrual & Ovarian Cycles 9. Corpus luteum produces progesterone. Estrogen 10. Progesterone inhibits the production of FHS & LH by the anterior pituitary & stimulates secretory phase . Progesterone Estrogen FSH LH

  41. X X FSH LH Hormonal Regulation of Ovarian & Menstrual Cycles 11. Diminishing levels of FSH & LH cause corpus luteum to deteriorate & produce less progesterone. 12. Dimishing levels of estrogen & progesterone cause inhibition of FSH & LH to end & thickened endometrium to slough (menses). Estrogen Progesterone X

  42. Hormonal Regulation of Ovarian & Uterine Cycles 13. Increasing levels of FSH cause a new cycle to begin. FSH

  43. The Menstrual Cycle

  44. X X Hormonal Regulation in Pregnancy Normally dimishing levels of estrogen & progesterone from deterioration of the corpus luteum would cause thickened endometrium to slough (menses) which would terminating a pregnancy. Estrogen Progesterone X

  45. Hormonal Regulation if Pregnancy Occurs Blastocyst produces human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) hormone which maintains corpus luteum in the absence of FSH & LH for the first trimester. hCG Eventually the placenta will produce sufficient estrogen & progesterone to sustain the pregnancy.