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The Finnish Case System. Steven Ellis. Location cases. These cases function as prepositions ( inesseive , elative, illative, adessive , ablative, allative ) Divided into internal and external location cases Distinction is purely semantic, both function the same syntactically

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location cases
Location cases
  • These cases function as prepositions
    • (inesseive, elative, illative, adessive, ablative, allative)
  • Divided into internal and external location cases
    • Distinction is purely semantic, both function the same syntactically
  • Nouns using these cases check case against the DP position of the PP in which they are embedded
location case example
Location Case Example
  • Viisitoista sijamuotoa on suomen kielessä
  • Fifteen cases are Finnish language+in(inessive)
  • ”There are 15 cases in the Finnish language.”
  • Or, more literally – ”Fifteen cases are in the Finnish language.”
slide5

CP

C`

TP

C

Ø

T’

DP

T

tj

VP

D’

V`

D

Ø

NP

V

On

+nonpast

PP

N`

AdjP

N

P`

Sijamuotoa

cases

+NOM

DP

P

Adj`

ti

Adj

D`

Viisitoista

Fifteen

Affix lowering in action! P->N

D

Ø

NP

N`

AdjP

N

kiele+ssai

Language+in

+INESS

Adj`

Adj

Suomen Finnish

grammatical cases
Grammatical Cases
  • Nominative, genitive, accusative
    • Function same as English equivalents
    • Denote subject, possessive, direct object
grammatical cases cont
Grammatical Cases (cont.)
  • Partitive
    • Indicates an ongoing process or incomplete action
    • Ex. “Luenkirjan(part.)” – I am reading a book
    • Vs. “Luenkirjaa(acc.)” – I (will) read a book
    • Also used in weather reports
slide8

CP

C`

TP

C

Ø

T’

DP

Ø

VP

T

Ti+Tj

V

Luen+nonpast

DP

D`

NP

D

Ø

N`

N

Kirja+n

+PARTITIVE

(Progressive tense)

marginal cases en usko ett he eiv t voita
Marginal cases (En usko, että he eivät voita.)
  • Essive
    • Carries the meaning of a temporary state of being
    • “As a child, I was short.”
    • ”Lapsena olin lyhyt.”
  • Abessive
    • Means “without”
  • Translative
    • Indicates a change of state
    • Naapurinitulirikkaaksi
marginal cases cont
Marginal Cases (cont.)
  • Comitative
    • Means “in company with”
  • Instructive
    • Assigns an instrumental thematic relation to the noun
case checking
Case Checking
  • Certain prepositions require a particular case
    • Olen Suomessamarraskuuhunasti.
    • “I’ll be in Finland until November”
    • Until requires illative (normally used as the preposition to)
  • Certain verbs require the complement to be of a specific case
    • Ex. “YstäväniasuuHelsingissä.”
          • Friend resides Helsinki+inessive(in)
    • “My friend resides in Helsinki.”
slide12

CP

C`

TP

C

Ø

T’

DP

T

Ø

VP

D’

V`

D

Ø

NP

PP

V

asuu

+INESSIVE

N`

N

P`

Ystäväni

DP

P

ti

D`

NP

D

Ø

N`

AdjP

N

Helsingi+ssai

+INESSIVE

Adj`

Adj