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Ancient Civilizations:. Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia. Geography & Environment. “the land between the rivers…”. The Geography. On which continent was Mesopotamia located?

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Ancient Civilizations:


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    1. Ancient Civilizations:

    2. Ancient Civilizations:Mesopotamia

    3. Geography & Environment “the land between the rivers…”

    4. The Geography • On which continent was Mesopotamia located? • Asia; in what is modern day Iraq, Syria & Turkey

    5. The Geography • On which river did the ancient Mesopotamians settle? • Between the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers; in an area known as the Fertile Crescent

    6. Early Mesopotamian Kingdoms

    7. Mesopotamian Cultures • Mesopotamia did NOT represent a unified kingdom, instead it was made up of a series of kingdoms that occupied a specific geographical space

    8. Mesopotamian Cultures • Sumer • Akkad • Babylonia • Assyria • Neo-Babylonia • Persia

    9. 3500 – 2300 BCE Sumer The first civilization

    10. Sumerian Geography • Geography: • Located at the southern end of Mesopotamia • Near the mouths of the Tigris & Euphrates

    11. Sumerian Geography • City-state: • A city + its surrounding lands • Independent political units that competed for trade & boundaries • i.e. Uruk, Kish, Ur, Lagash

    12. Sumerian Geography • Characteristics: • Shared culture • Unique government • Outer walls • A central temple/ziggurat

    13. Sumerian Religion & Government • Polytheism: • The worship of more than one god • Believed gods were immortal & all powerful; humans were to serve the gods

    14. Sumerian Religion & Government • Ziggurat: • Temples where sacrifices and offerings were made to the gods • Animals, food, wine, etc.

    15. Sumerian Religion & Government • City-states were ruled by priest- kings who were viewed as powerful agents of the gods

    16. Sumerian Culture & Knowledge • Despite their religious practices, Sumerians had little, if any, belief in an afterlife • Believed that the souls of the dead went to the “land of no return”

    17. Sumerian Culture & Knowledge • Developed a form of writing language known as cuneiform

    18. Sumerian Culture & Knowledge • Invention of the wheel (3000 BC) • Economy based on farming & trade • CULTURAL DIFFUSION

    19. Sumerian Culture & Knowledge • Other notable contributions: • Invention of the sail & plow • The usage of bronze • Development of a number system

    20. Babylonia 1790 – 1590 BCE The first system of justice

    21. The Babylonian Empire • In 1792 BC a new empire took control of Mesopotamia • Babylonia • Reached its height during the reign of Hammurabi

    22. The Babylonian Empire • Hammurabi’s Code: • Written code of laws • Stressed responsible behavior • Capital punishment

    23. The Babylonian Empire • “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” • Punishments based on SOCIAL CLASS • Laws focused on ALL aspects of society