Researcher s paradigm from ontology to methods
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Researcher’s Paradigm From Ontology to methods. Mohammad Waseem Sandouk. Researcher’s Paradigm. Ontology.

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Researcher s paradigm from ontology to methods

Researcher’s ParadigmFrom Ontology to methods

Mohammad Waseem Sandouk


  • The word ontology is a compound word, composed of onto-, from the Greek ὤν, on (gen. ὄντος, ontos), i.e. "being; that which is", which is the present participle of the verb εἰμί, eimi, i.e. "to be, I am", and -λογία, -logia, i.e. "science, study, theory". (Source:



Epistemology 1
Epistemology - 1

  • Epistemology (i/ɨˌpɪstɨˈmɒlədʒi/ from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge, understanding", and λόγος, logos, meaning "study of") is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. (Source:

Epistemology 2
Epistemology - 2

  • Positivism: universal truth, generalizable laws, experimental testing

  • Post-positivism: giving the experiment a ‘context’

  • Critical theory: all knowledge has value & bias, ‘political knowledge’ (Standpoint epistemologies, Marxism, Feminism…)

  • Critical realism: there are certain truths, but we as researchers bring our own values to them. (defending positivism in response to criticism)

  • Interpretivism: purely subjective, no single truth (not generalisable), individualised knowledge (meaning, symbols, semiotics…)


  • Various methodologies

    • Grounded theory

    • Hypothesis testing

    • Phenomenology

    • interpretative approaches

    • Ethnographic approach

    • case study approach

    • ideological framework


  • Qualitative methods

  • Quantitative methods

  • Mixed methods

Ontology epistemology methodology and method
Ontology, Epistemology, Methodology, and Method

The Simple Relationship Between Epistemology, Methodology, and Method

Ontological framework

Adapted from Carter, S.M. & Little, M. (2011)

Validity and reliability
Validity and Reliability

  • Validity refers to what degree the research reflects the given research problem

  • Reliability refers to how consistent a set of measurements are. Read more: Research Methodology