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Fig. 24-5. Speciation can occur in two ways: Allopatric Speciation Sympatric Speciation. (a) Allopatric speciation. (b) Sympatric speciation. Allopatric (“Other Country”) Speciation.

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slide1

Fig. 24-5

Speciation can occur in two ways:

Allopatric Speciation

Sympatric Speciation

(a) Allopatric speciation

(b) Sympatric speciation

allopatric other country speciation
Allopatric (“Other Country”) Speciation
  • In allopatric speciation, gene flow is interrupted or reduced when a population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations
the process of allopatric speciation
The Process of Allopatric Speciation
  • The definition of barrier depends on the ability of a population to disperse
  • Separate populations may evolve independently through mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift
slide4

Fig. 24-6

A. harrisi

A. leucurus

Allopatric Speciation of antelope squirrels on opposite rims of the Grand Canyon.

sympatric same country speciation
Sympatric (“Same Country”) Speciation
  • In sympatric speciation, speciation takes place in geographically overlapping populations
polyploidy
Polyploidy
  • Polyploidy is the presence of extra sets of chromosomes due to accidents during cell division
  • Polyploidy is much more common in plants than in animals

2n

2n = 6

4n = 12

4n

Failure of cell

division after

chromosome

duplication gives

rise to tetraploid

tissue.

Gametes

produced

are diploid..

Offspring with

tetraploid

karyotypes may

be viable and

fertile.

allopolyploid
Allopolyploid
  • An allopolyploid is a species with multiple sets of chromosomes derived from different species

Species B

2n = 4

Unreduced

gamete

with 4

chromosomes

Unreduced

gamete

with 7

chromosomes

Hybrid

with 7

chromosomes

Meiotic

error

Viable fertile

hybrid

(allopolyploid)

2n = 10

Normal

gamete

n = 3

Normal

gamete

n = 3

Species A

2n = 6

habitat differentiation
Habitat Differentiation
  • Sympatric speciation can also result from the appearance of new ecological niches
  • For example, the North American maggot fly can live on native hawthorn trees as well as more recently introduced apple trees
sexual selection
Sexual Selection

EXPERIMENT

Monochromatic

orange light

  • Sexual selection can drive sympatric speciation
  • Sexual selection for mates of different colors has likely contributed to the speciation in cichlid fish in Lake Victoria

Normal light

P.

pundamilia

P. nyererei

allopatric and sympatric speciation a review
Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation: A Review
  • In allopatric speciation, geographic isolation restricts gene flow between populations
  • Reproductive isolation may then arise by natural selection, genetic drift, or sexual selection in the isolated populations
  • Even if contact is restored between populations, interbreeding is prevented
  • In sympatric speciation, a reproductive barrier isolates a subset of a population without geographic separation from the parent species
  • Sympatric speciation can result from polyploidy, natural selection, or sexual selection
adaptive radiations
Adaptive Radiations
  • Adaptive radiation is the evolution of diversely adapted species from a common ancestor upon introduction to new environmental opportunities
worldwide adaptive radiations
Worldwide Adaptive Radiations
  • Mammals underwent an adaptive radiation after the extinction of terrestrial dinosaurs
  • The disappearance of dinosaurs (except birds) allowed for the expansion of mammals in diversity and size
  • Other notable radiations include photosynthetic prokaryotes, large predators in the Cambrian, land plants, insects, and tetrapods
regional adaptive radiations
Regional Adaptive Radiations
  • Adaptive radiations can occur when organisms colonize new environments with little competition
  • The Hawaiian Islands are one of the world’s great showcases of adaptive radiation
slide14

Fig. 25-18

Close North American relative,

the tarweed Carlquistia muirii

1.3

million

years

MOLOKAI

KAUAI

5.1

million

years

Dubautia laxa

MAUI

OAHU

3.7

million

years

Argyroxiphiumsandwicense

LANAI

HAWAII

0.4

million

years

Dubautia waialealae

Plants all descended from an ancestral tarweed that arrived on the islands about 5 million years ago

Dubautia scabra

Dubautia linearis

patterns of evolution
Patterns Of Evolution
  • The fossil record includes examples of species that appear suddenly, persist essentially unchanged for some time, and then apparently disappear
  • Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould coined the term punctuated equilibrium to describe periods of apparent stasis punctuated by sudden change
  • The punctuated equilibrium model contrasts with a model of gradual change in a species’ existence - known as gradualism. Darwin supported the idea of slow gradual change.
  • Transition species found in the fossil record are a key component to gradualism.
slide16

Fig. 24-17

(a) Punctuated pattern

Time

(b) Gradual pattern