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Essential Nutrients. What are they? Why do I need them? How much do I need? Where do I get them?. Essential Nutrients. What are they? You tell me!. Essential Nutrients: an overview. Carbohydrate organic (o), energy ( nrg ) Lipid (fats/oils) o, nrg

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essential nutrients

Essential Nutrients

What are they?

Why do I need them?

How much do I need?

Where do I get them?

essential nutrients1

Essential Nutrients

What are they?

You tell me!

essential nutrients an overview
Essential Nutrients: an overview

Carbohydrate organic (o), energy (nrg)

Lipid (fats/oils) o, nrg

Protein o, nrg+nitrogen

non-preferred nrg source

Vitamins o, not an nrg source

Minerals inorganic, not an nrg source

Water major component body wt.

Which EN is most acutely needed?

essential nutrients2

Essential Nutrients

Why do I need them?

essential nutrients3
Essential Nutrients

Required for health; obtained from our diet

Wecannot make enough, or any of these nutrients

  • Non Essential Nutrients
  • They are required for health too!
  • We can make enough to meet our needs
    • e.g. creatine, lecithin, cholesterol, vitamin D etc.
essential nutrients4

Essential Nutrients

How much do I need?

Think of two ideas to help you

gauge your EN need.

tips to gauge nutrient quantity need
Tips to gauge nutrient quantity need
  • Lay person best % Daily Value (DV)

Goal ~100%/day

Food labels

  • Learn to trust your appetite
  • Follow urine color and weight change
  • Head’s Up…excess or deficiency = danger
  • Logging apps
  • TechnicalbestRDA

Recommended Dietary Allowance

essential nutrients5

Essential Nutrients

Where do I get them?

Food 1st. Supplements 2nd.

Eat real food. Not too much. Mostly plants.

M. Pollan

which is most nutritious and why
Which is most nutritious and why?

a. 100% pure orange juice (OJ)

b. Fresh, whole oranges

c. Vitamin/mineral fortified orange drink

d. 100% pure OJ with pulp added

e. They are all about the same.

It’s not just about quantity, quality counts too!

rank nutrient quality and justify choice
Rank nutrient quality and justify choice
  • 40 gram portion
    • Almonds (¼ cup)
    • String beans
    • Sugar (3 Tbsp.)
nutrient density vs calorie density
Nutrient Density vs. Calorie Density


Almonds2107.6 4.1++ ND/CD

Green Beans 15 0.25 1.2 + + ND

Sugar150------ ------ EC

Nutrient Density (ND) nutrients/calorie

Calorie Density (CD) calories/gram food

Empty Calories (EC) no nutrients/calorie

caloric density calories gram
Caloric Density: calories/gram

90 calories/lb

1200 calories/lb

evaluating diet quality
Evaluating Diet Quality
  • Using ND, CD and EC, describe the type of diet you advise to reach each goal.
  • Justify your choice.
    • A healthy college student trying to lose 10 pounds
    • A competitive athlete desiring weight gain
    • A healthy 5 year old child
    • Someone recovering from burn/injury/surgery
    • A healthy elderly woman who uses a walker

Essential Nutrients

  • CALORIES….unit of measurement of the energy in food
  • Consider… are Calories measured; how do they get into food?
  • Calories
  • The dry mass (where the calories are) of a tree or broccoli, beans and indirectly beef, come from thin air!
  • Most of the dry mass is from carbon dioxide (CO2)
photosynthesis puts calories into food
Photosynthesis=puts calories into food

Converting solar nrg food nrg

solar nrg+ H2O + CO2 glucose* + O2

*glucose is a:

carb (an EN) and contains C from CO2

basic building block of all carbohydrates

cellular respiration
Cellular respiration

Converting food nrg ATP (cell nrg)

nrgnutrient + O2 H2O + CO2 + ATP + heat


e nergy n utrients our calorie source
Energy Nutrients= our calorie source

Organic, contain carbon, burned (oxidized) to make ATP (chemical fuel) for cells

Calorie value of energy nutrients:

Carbohydrate (4 calories/g)

Lipid (9)

Protein (4)

Alcohol (7)

…a fuel, but not essential!!


From Thin Air







NRG nutrient+O2




what i want you to know
What I want you to know!

Food security (your life) depends on:

  • a healthy atmosphere and environment
  • photosynthetic green plants
  • solar energy (ultimate source of our energy)
  • Thank the sun and green plants for dinner tonight!
  • Read the course outline
  • Bring a food ….not candy or gum, label next class 
  • See website for lecture notes and handouts
photosynthesis vs respiration
Photosynthesis vs. Respiration

Photosynthesis (plant)

solar nrg+ H2O + CO2 nrg nutrient* + O2


Respiration (animal)

nrg nutrient + O2 H2O + CO2 + ATP + heat


partner up think and answer
Partner Up, Think and Answer!
  • What is the most vital component of food production?
  • Name the essential nutrients. Which give us energy?
  • Why is an orange more nutrient dense than OJ?
  • Which EN has the most Calories/gram?
  • Compare and contrast the substrates of cellular respiration and the products of photosynthesis.
  • What is the form of NRG the cell can use?