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Cell Biology: Cell Compounds and Biological Molecules. Lesson 3 – Carbohydrates and Lipids ( Inquiry into Life pg. 31-36 ). Today’s Objectives. Analyze the structure and function of biological molecules in living systems, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

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cell biology cell compounds and biological molecules

Cell Biology:Cell Compounds and Biological Molecules

Lesson 3 – Carbohydrates and Lipids (Inquiry into Life pg. 31-36)

today s objectives
Today’s Objectives
  • Analyze the structure and function of biological molecules in living systems, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
    • Demonstrate a knowledge of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis applied to organic monomers and polymers
    • Differentiate among carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids with respect to chemical structure
    • Recognize the empirical formula of a monosaccharide
    • List the main functions of carbohydrates
    • Differentiate among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
    • Differentiate among starch, cellulose, and glycogen with respect to function, type of bonding, and level of branching
    • Describe the location, structure, and function of the following in the human body: neutral fats, steroids, phospholipids
    • Compare saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in terms of molecular structure
2 4 organic molecules
Always contain:

Carbon (C) and Hydrogen (H)

A carbon atom may share electrons with another carbon atom

Can form long carbon chains (below)

2.4 Organic Molecules
carbon rings
Can also form carbon rings when a carbon chain turns back on itself

Called a ring compound

Functional groups can be attached to carbon chains or rings

Carbon Rings
macromolecules
Macromolecules
  • Many molecules of life are macromolecules.

(macromolecules contain many molecules joined together)

    • Monomers:
      • Simple organic molecules that exist individually
      • Can also be called “unit molecules”
    • Polymers:
      • Large organic molecules form by combining monomers
dehydration and hydrolysis reactions
Dehydration and Hydrolysis Reactions
  • Cells have mechanisms of joining monomers to build polymers
    • Dehydration Reaction:
      • an -OH and -H are removed as a water molecule
    • Hydrolysis Reaction:
      • the components of water are added
dehydration and hydrolysis reactions2
Dehydration and Hydrolysis Reactions
  • Ex) dehydration of glucose
organic molecules1
Organic Molecules
  • The 4 main types of organic polymers that we will be looking at are:
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids (fats)
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids
  • All are essential to life
2 5 carbohydrates
2.5 Carbohydrates
  • Some Functions:
        • Quick fuel*
        • Short-term energy storage*
        • Structure of organisms
      • * foremost function
  • Molecules characterized by presence of the grouping H-C-OH
  • Ratio if H to O is 2:1
monosaccharides
Monosaccharides
  • Simple Carbohydrates
    • Monosaccharides are sugars with 3 - 7 carbon atoms
    • Sugars are vital fuel nutrients for cells
    • Pentose refers to a 5-carbon sugar
      • All occur as ring structures with the formula C5H10Ox
    • Hexoserefers to a 6-carbon sugar
        • Glucose – found in our blood
        • Fructose – found in fruits
        • Galactose – found in milk
      • All occur as ring structures with the formula C6H12O6
      • Exact shape of ring differs, as does arrangement of the –H and –OH groups attached
monosaccharides glucose
Monosaccharides - Glucose

Three ways to represent the structure of glucose.

monosaccharides1
Monosaccharides

GLUCOSE FRUCTOSE GALACTOSE

disaccharides
Disaccharidescontain twobonded monosaccharides

Have a common formula C12H22O11

Common disaccharides:

Maltose - two molecules of glucose

Sucrose – one glucose, one fructose

Lactose – one glucose, one galactose

Disaccharides
polysaccharides
Polysaccharides
  • Polysaccharidesare long polymers that contain many glucose subunits.
  • basic formula (C6H10O5)n
    • n= dozens to thousands of glucose units
  • Three main types:
    • Starchis the storage form of glucose in plants.
    • Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals.
    • Cellulose can be found in the cell walls of plants.
polysaccharides1
Polysaccharides

Glycogen

Starch

Cellulose

starch
Starch
  • Storage form of glucose in plants
  • Few side chains of glucose
  • Linkage between glucose units are the same
  • Figure 2.17 pg. 33
glycogen
Glycogen
  • “animal starch” stored in the liver and muscle tissue
  • Storage form of glucose in animals
  • Many side chains of glucose
  • Linkage between glucose units the same
  • Figure 2.18 pg. 33
cellulose
Cellulose
  • Gives plants its structure
  • Found in the cell walls of plants
  • No side chains of glucose
  • Different linkages between glucose units
  • Fig. 219 pg. 33
cellulose1
Cellulose
  • Our digestive system is unable to digest this linkage.
  • Cellulose passes through our system as fiber or roughage.
  • May be important for good health and prevention of colon cancer
summary of carbohydrates
Summary of Carbohydrates
  • 1) Source of short-term energy for all organisms:
    • Animals – glycogen
    • Plants – starch
    • Energy is released as the carbohydrates are broken down by hydrolysis
  • 2) Structural molecules in plants - cellulose
2 6 lipids
2.6 Lipids
  • Include:
    • Fats and Oils
    • Phospholipids
    • Steroids
  • We eat lipids as part of our food. Our bodies are capable of producing them as well as metabolizing them
  • Next to glucose, fats are the second most important energy molecule for us
  • Unfortunately, we store them in adipose (fat) cells
lipids
Lipids
  • Some functions:
    • Long-term energy storage
    • Insulation against heat loss
    • Protection of major organs
    • Primary component of the cell membrane
  • Molecules also contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen but the H:O ratio is greater than 2:1
  • Lipids do not dissolve in water (non-polar)
  • Lipids are electrically neutral
lipids1
Lipids
  • Fats and Oils
    • Fats (saturated fats)
      • Usually of animal origin
      • Solid at room temperature
      • Fats provide long-term energy storage, insulate against heat loss, and protect major organs
      • Ex.) lard, butter
    • Oils (unsaturated fats)
      • Usually of plant origin
      • Liquid at room temperature
      • Ex.) vegetable oils
formation of fats
Formation of Fats
  • Fats and oils form when one glycerol molecule reacts with three fatty acid molecules
  • A fat molecule is sometimes called a triglyceride because of its three-part structure
  • The term neutral fat is sometimes used because the molecule is non-polar
neutral fat structure
Neutral Fat Structure

Synthesis and degradation of a fat molecule

fatty acids
Fatty Acids
  • Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    • Fatty acids are hydrocarbon chains that end

with an acidic group -COOH.

      • Saturated fatty acids:
        • No double covalent bonds between carbon atoms
        • Carbon atoms are “saturated” with as many hydrogen atoms as they can hold
      • Unsaturated fatty acids:
        • Have some double bonds between carbon atoms (wherever the number of hydrogens is less than two per carbon atom)
fatty acids1
Fatty Acids

Saturated Fatty Acid

Unsaturated Fatty Acid

-COOH acidic group

Carbon double bond

phospholipids
Phospholipids
  • Phospholipids are a variation of a triglyceride where one of the 3 fatty acids is replaced with a phosphate and nitrogen-containing group
  • Primary components of cellular membranes
phospholipids1
Phospholipids
  • The phosphate group creates a polar region on one end of the phospholipid
  • This allows phospholipids to mix with both polar (hydrophilic) and non-polar (hydrophobic) materials
phospholipids2
Phospholipids
  • The heads of the phospholipids are polar and are said to be water loving (hydrophilic)
  • The tails of the phospholipids are non-polar and are said to be water fearing (hydrophobic)
cell membrane
Cell Membrane
  • The structure of phospholipids make them a very important part of cells as they form much of the cell membrane
steroids
Steroids
  • Assist in protein synthesis
  • Insoluble in water
  • All steroids have fouradjacent carbon rings.
  • Examples:
    • Cholesterol
      • important part of the cell membrane
      • Protective cover around nerve fibers
    • Testosterone
      • Male sex hormone
    • Estrogen
      • Female sex hormone
structure of steroids
Structure of Steroids

All steroids have four adjacent carbon rings, but their attached groups differ. The effects on the body largely depend on the difference in the attached groups (shown in blue)

cholesterol
Cholesterol
  • Formed by the body and also enters body as a part of our diet
  • Important part of the cell membrane and protective cover around nerve fibers
  • Cholesterol is important but often results in fatty deposits inside arteries which narrows the pathway for blood to the heart
  • Can result in high blood pressure