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Independence and its Heroes. Independence…remained by far the most important moment for the new nations that emerged; representations of its heroes and martyrs have become talismans or icons signifying those beliefs, and reinterpreted with reverence, or

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independence and its heroes

Independence and its Heroes

Independence…remained by far the most important moment

for the new nations that emerged; representations of its

heroes and martyrs have become talismans or icons

signifying those beliefs, and reinterpreted with reverence, or

with irony, by artists in the twentieth century for whom national

or Latin American identity in cultural and political terms

remains an unresolved and therefore potent issue.

(Ades p.7)


(left) Claudio Linati,Miguel Hidalgo, from Costumes du Mexique, Brussels, 1828(center and right) Juan O’Gorman (Mexican, 1905-1982), detail from Chapultepec Castle (now National Museum of History, Mexico City) mural showing Hidalgo, c.1944; Portrait of Miguel Hidalgo, n.d., preparatory study for mural, charcoal on paperHidalgo, a parish priest, initiated the 1810 indigenous uprising against Spain. However: “Both culturally and economically, Independence was for the creoles, not the Indians.” (Ades)

“Father of Mexico”


Stairway roof with portrait of Miguel Hidalgo by Jose Clemente Orozco in the Palacio del Gobierno. Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, 1937, fresco


Antonio Salas (attributed), Portrait of Simon Bolivar 1829, o/c, 23” x 18”. Bolivar (1783-1830), from a wealthy Venezuelan creole family, led independence wars in the present nations of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, gaining independence for most of the northern part of South America

“It will be said that I have

liberated the new World,

but it will not be said that

I perfected the stability and

happiness of any of the

nations that compass it.”

“We have ploughed the sea”



Pedro José Figueroa, Simon Bolivar, Liberator and Father of the Nation, 1819, oil on canvas, Quinta de Bolivar, Colombia; Indian woman as “America” or the New Republic

academies and history painting
Academies and History Painting

“The Royal Academy of san Carlos in Mexico City, founded in 1785,

was the first academy of art in America, and the only one established

under colonial rule…. In Brazil, the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes

was founded in Rio de Janeiro…in 1826 with the French painter

J.B. Debret, who trained in David’s studio, as director…. In Peru,

the Academy was founded in 1919….” (coinciding with the arrival of

modern art)



Natalia Majluf, “Ce n’es pas le Peru,” or, the Failure of Authenticity: Marginal Cosmopolitans at the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1855”“The movement of artists and intellectuals from Latin America to metropolitan centers (and usually back) increased dramatically after independence from Spain in the early nineteenth century…young Creole Americans traveled to Paris, London, and Rome not as exiles or émigrés but as cosmopolitans, as participants in a world culture.” “…but the international community has systematically rejected any sign of their sameness.” (Majluf)

francisco laso the indian potter or dweller in the cordillera 1855 o c 4 4 h lima
Francisco Laso, The Indian Potter (or Dweller in the Cordillera), 1855, o/c, 4’4” H., Lima

“The same comparative context that rejected

the cosmopolitanism of the Latin American

artists served simultaneously to locate

France at the very center of the international

art scene.” Majluf


José Ferraz de Almeida Junior (Brazil 1859-1899), The Guitar Player, 1899, o/c, 56” H, Pinocoteca do Estado de Sao Paolo Academic genre paintings“costumbrismo” and “realism”


(left) Aztec goddess, Coatlique, c. 1500 C.E.; (right) Praxiteles, Hermes & Dionysus, 4th Century B.C.The Royal Academy of San Carlos in Mexico City was thoroughly European in its aims and practices. Students studied from a selection of plaster casts of Greek and Roman sculptures sent from Spain. The question of “beauty” of European versus ancient Indigenous Mexican work was discussed.

juan cordero mexico 1824 1884 the bather c 1860 oil on canvas 59 x 45 in
Juan Cordero (Mexico, 1824-1884), The Bather, c.1860, oil on canvas, 59 X 45 in.

Cordero’s draped nude shocked Mexican visitors at a 1864 exhibition.


Juan Cordero (Mexico, 1824-1884), Columbus Before the Catholic Monarchs, 1850, o/c, 68” H. First history painting of an American subject seen by Mexican viewers.

Academic history paintings were popular in the New World.


Martín Tovar y Tovar (Venezuela, 1827-1902), The Battle of Carabobo (detail), 1887, one ofsix canvas murals for the dome of the Salón Elíptico in the capitol building of Caracas, Venezuela 1887. Simón Bolívar’s revolutionary army won the 1821 battle and entered Caracas to claim independence for Venezuela.


Arturo Michelena (Venezuela 1863 -1898), Miranda in La Carraca, 1896, oil on canvas, Galeria de Arte Nacional, Caracas. Comparison (right) is Jacques-Louis David, Death of Socrates, 1787. Neo-Classicism

anonymous castes 18 th century oil on canvas 58 x 41
Anonymous, Castes, 18th century, oil on canvas, 58 x 41”

Reading: “Dispossession, Assimilation, and the Image of the Indian in Late Nineteenth Century Mexican Painting,”

by Stacie Widdifield


The captions in the above paintings say, top, "from mulato and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African.

What was Stacie Widdifield’s thesis in

“Dispossession, Assimilation,

and the Image of the Indian in Late-

Nineteenth-Century Mexican Painting”?

Felix Parra, The Massacrre of Cholula (detail, below right), 1877, oil on canvas, 31 x 41 inches, National Museum of Art, Mexico City

Subjects are “objects of paternalism typical

of 19th century writing about the contemporary



Felix Parra, Friar Bartolomé de las Casas, 1875, oil on canvas, Museo Nacional de Arte, Mexico City. The woman turns to the Christian friar and not the Aztec god.


Isidro Martinez, The Princess Papantzin, 1880, oil on canvas, 44 x 70inches. Museo de Bellas Artes de Toluca, State of Mexico. Sister of Moctezuma II, Papantzin’s Europeanized features are a sign of her conversion to Christianity.


José Escudero y Espronceda, Portrait of Benito Juarez and Margarita Maza de Juarez, 1890, oil on canvas, 28 x 23 inches, Museu Nacional de Historia, Mexico City

José Maria Obregón, Discovery of Pulque, 1869, oil on canvas73 x 91 in., Museo Nacional de Arte, Mexico City

Xochitl, who discovered pulque, presents it to Tecpancaltzin

Academic Neoclassicism in Mexico


Leandro Izaguirre, Torture of Cuauhtémoc, 1893, oil on canvas, over 9 x 14 feet, National Museum of Art, Mexico City. Cuauhtémoc (c.1502–1525) was the Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan from 1520 to 1521. Painted for the Chicago World’s Fair of 1893.

Historicist indigenism

For quiz on Monday, be prepared to write a 20-minute essay that brings together all the readings and lectures through the concept of identity in representations of Latin America by both European and Latin American artists. Include as many facts as possible: names, dates, titles, locations.

NOTE: Do not write a journal entry. I am behind in the lectures. Just study for the quiz.


(left) Albert Eckhout (Dutch, ca.1610-1666) Tarairiu Woman and Tarairiu Man, 1641, over 8 ft tall, oil on canvas, National Museum of Denmark


Frederick Catherwood (English, 1799-1854), 1844, lithograph, Classic Maya ruins at Copán Honduras, Stele D (435-822), depicting ruler, Eighteen Rabbit

Photograph showing detail

of portrait stele


Frederick Catherwood (English, 1799-1854), 1844, Maya, Cenote of Bolenchen, Yucatan, Mexico, lithograph plate from Views of Ancient Monuments in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan, 1844, Royal Institute of British Architects, London. Catherwood’s books were best sellers in Europe.


Johann Rugendas (German, 1802-1858) (right) Study of Palm Trees, c. 1831, oil sketch; (left) Costumes in Rio, 1823; (center) Slave Hunter, 1824

From Voyage Pittoresque dans le Brésil (Picturesque Voyage to Brazil), with more than 100 illustrations, still one of the most important documents about 19th-century Brazil.


(left) Joseph Skinner (British), 2 plates from The Present State of Peru, London, 1805(right) Carl Nebel (German) Indian Charcoal-Makers, watercolor reproduced as lithograph in Voyage Picturesque and Archeological in the Most Interesting Parts of Mexico, Paris, 1836

2005 facsimile of Skinner’s 1805

book available through


Carl Nebel (German) watercolor, 1829-1834, reproduced as a lithograph in Voyage Picturesque and Archeological in the Most Interesting Parts of Mexico, Paris, 1836


Edouard Pingret (French, 1788-1875), (left) Indian, oil on canvas, after 1857; (right) Waterseller, c. after 1857, o/c, 23” HFrom 1850 to 1855 Pingret lived and worked in Mexico City, exhibiting annually at the Academia de Bellas Artes. Costumbrismo

Catalogue of Pingret’s

costumbrismo paintings


(left) Claudio Gay (French) Costumes of Country People, Physical and Political Historical Atlas of Chile, Paris, 1854(right) Juan Manuel Blanes (Uruguayan), Dusk, n.d., oil on cardboard, 9 ½ “ H


Carmelo Fernandez, (left) Mestizo Farmers of Anis, Ocana Province(right) Notables of the Capital, Santander Province, Colombia , Colombia, 1850-9, watercolor, National Library, Bogota

José María Velasco, Templo de San Bernardo (San Bernardo Church), 1861oil on paper mounted on canvas, 13 X 17 ½ inches

Velasco, in the context of the buildings section of his class in landscape painting, as a student at the Academy San Carlos in Mexico City, shows how, with the pretext of progress and modernization, the monasteries were destroyed to "straighten out" the contours of the city. Modernization of Mexico is documented in Velasco’s oeuvre with obvious ambiguity.


(right) José Maria Velasco, Valley of Oaxaca, 1888, oil on canvas, 42 x 63” (left) Claude Lorraine (French, 1604-1682), Pastoral Landscape 1638


Velasco, Metlac Ravine, Viewed from near the Station in Fortin, 1897, o/c, 41” h(right) anonymous photograph of Metlac ravine, 1910Modernization of Mexico


José Maria Velasco, Valley of Mexico from the Hill of Santa Isabel, 1877, o/c, 5’3”x7’6”(right) Thomas Cole (English-American, 1801-1848, Hudson River School) View from Mt. Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm (The Oxbow), 1836


(left) José GuadalupePosada (Mexican, 1852-1913), Artists’ Purgatory (right) J.J.Grandville (Jean Ignace Isidore Gérard, French, 1803-1847) Chamber of Deputies, 1867, engraving


In 1900 Maucci Brothers, a Spanish publisher, commissioned Posada to illustrate a series of pamphlets for children on the history of Mexico. Each pamphlet measuring 4 3/4 x 3 1/4 in. is approximately 16 pages. The cover illustrations are probably the only mechanically produced chromolithographs that Posada ever did. Jean Charlot collection, University of Hawaii

jos guadalupe posada calavera of the newspapers 1889 95 type metal engraving moma nyc
José Guadalupe Posada, Calavera of the Newspapers, 1889-95type metal engraving, MoMA NYC

Posada, Streets of the City of Mexico on the Morning of 9 February 1913, n.d., zinc engraving,(right) Skeletons at a fractional price as never seen before in all of the Capital.