Independence and its Heroes. Independence…remained by far the most important moment for the new nations that emerged; representations of its heroes and martyrs have become talismans or icons signifying those beliefs, and reinterpreted with reverence, or
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Independence…remained by far the most important moment
for the new nations that emerged; representations of its
heroes and martyrs have become talismans or icons
signifying those beliefs, and reinterpreted with reverence, or
with irony, by artists in the twentieth century for whom national
or Latin American identity in cultural and political terms
remains an unresolved and therefore potent issue.
(left) Claudio Linati,Miguel Hidalgo, from Costumes du Mexique, Brussels, 1828(center and right) Juan O’Gorman (Mexican, 1905-1982), detail from Chapultepec Castle (now National Museum of History, Mexico City) mural showing Hidalgo, c.1944; Portrait of Miguel Hidalgo, n.d., preparatory study for mural, charcoal on paperHidalgo, a parish priest, initiated the 1810 indigenous uprising against Spain. However: “Both culturally and economically, Independence was for the creoles, not the Indians.” (Ades)
“Father of Mexico”
Stairway roof with portrait of Miguel Hidalgo by Jose Clemente Orozco in the Palacio del Gobierno. Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, 1937, fresco
Antonio Salas (attributed), Portrait of Simon Bolivar 1829, o/c, 23” x 18”. Bolivar (1783-1830), from a wealthy Venezuelan creole family, led independence wars in the present nations of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, gaining independence for most of the northern part of South America
“It will be said that I have
liberated the new World,
but it will not be said that
I perfected the stability and
happiness of any of the
nations that compass it.”
“We have ploughed the sea”
Pedro José Figueroa, Simon Bolivar, Liberator and Father of the Nation, 1819, oil on canvas, Quinta de Bolivar, Colombia; Indian woman as “America” or the New Republic
“The Royal Academy of san Carlos in Mexico City, founded in 1785,
was the first academy of art in America, and the only one established
under colonial rule…. In Brazil, the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes
was founded in Rio de Janeiro…in 1826 with the French painter
J.B. Debret, who trained in David’s studio, as director…. In Peru,
the Academy was founded in 1919….” (coinciding with the arrival of
Natalia Majluf, “Ce n’es pas le Peru,” or, the Failure of Authenticity: Marginal Cosmopolitans at the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1855”“The movement of artists and intellectuals from Latin America to metropolitan centers (and usually back) increased dramatically after independence from Spain in the early nineteenth century…young Creole Americans traveled to Paris, London, and Rome not as exiles or émigrés but as cosmopolitans, as participants in a world culture.” “…but the international community has systematically rejected any sign of their sameness.” (Majluf)
“The same comparative context that rejected
the cosmopolitanism of the Latin American
artists served simultaneously to locate
France at the very center of the international
art scene.” Majluf
José Ferraz de Almeida Junior (Brazil 1859-1899), The Guitar Player, 1899, o/c, 56” H, Pinocoteca do Estado de Sao Paolo Academic genre paintings“costumbrismo” and “realism”
(left) Aztec goddess, Coatlique, c. 1500 C.E.; (right) Praxiteles, Hermes & Dionysus, 4th Century B.C.The Royal Academy of San Carlos in Mexico City was thoroughly European in its aims and practices. Students studied from a selection of plaster casts of Greek and Roman sculptures sent from Spain. The question of “beauty” of European versus ancient Indigenous Mexican work was discussed.
Cordero’s draped nude shocked Mexican visitors at a 1864 exhibition.
Juan Cordero (Mexico, 1824-1884), Columbus Before the Catholic Monarchs, 1850, o/c, 68” H. First history painting of an American subject seen by Mexican viewers.
Academic history paintings were popular in the New World.
Martín Tovar y Tovar (Venezuela, 1827-1902), The Battle of Carabobo (detail), 1887, one ofsix canvas murals for the dome of the Salón Elíptico in the capitol building of Caracas, Venezuela 1887. Simón Bolívar’s revolutionary army won the 1821 battle and entered Caracas to claim independence for Venezuela.
Arturo Michelena (Venezuela 1863 -1898), Miranda in La Carraca, 1896, oil on canvas, Galeria de Arte Nacional, Caracas. Comparison (right) is Jacques-Louis David, Death of Socrates, 1787. Neo-Classicism
Reading: “Dispossession, Assimilation, and the Image of the Indian in Late Nineteenth Century Mexican Painting,”
by Stacie Widdifield
The captions in the above paintings say, top, "from mulato and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African.
What was Stacie Widdifield’s thesis in
and the Image of the Indian in Late-
Nineteenth-Century Mexican Painting”?
Subjects are “objects of paternalism typical
of 19th century writing about the contemporary
Felix Parra, Friar Bartolomé de las Casas, 1875, oil on canvas, Museo Nacional de Arte, Mexico City. The woman turns to the Christian friar and not the Aztec god.
Isidro Martinez, The Princess Papantzin, 1880, oil on canvas, 44 x 70inches. Museo de Bellas Artes de Toluca, State of Mexico. Sister of Moctezuma II, Papantzin’s Europeanized features are a sign of her conversion to Christianity.
José Escudero y Espronceda, Portrait of Benito Juarez and Margarita Maza de Juarez, 1890, oil on canvas, 28 x 23 inches, Museu Nacional de Historia, Mexico City
Xochitl, who discovered pulque, presents it to Tecpancaltzin
Academic Neoclassicism in Mexico
Leandro Izaguirre, Torture of Cuauhtémoc, 1893, oil on canvas, over 9 x 14 feet, National Museum of Art, Mexico City. Cuauhtémoc (c.1502–1525) was the Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan from 1520 to 1521. Painted for the Chicago World’s Fair of 1893.
NOTE: Do not write a journal entry. I am behind in the lectures. Just study for the quiz.
(left) Albert Eckhout (Dutch, ca.1610-1666) Tarairiu Woman and Tarairiu Man, 1641, over 8 ft tall, oil on canvas, National Museum of Denmark
Frederick Catherwood (English, 1799-1854), 1844, lithograph, Classic Maya ruins at Copán Honduras, Stele D (435-822), depicting ruler, Eighteen Rabbit
Photograph showing detail
of portrait stele
Frederick Catherwood (English, 1799-1854), 1844, Maya, Cenote of Bolenchen, Yucatan, Mexico, lithograph plate from Views of Ancient Monuments in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan, 1844, Royal Institute of British Architects, London. Catherwood’s books were best sellers in Europe.
Johann Rugendas (German, 1802-1858) (right) Study of Palm Trees, c. 1831, oil sketch; (left) Costumes in Rio, 1823; (center) Slave Hunter, 1824
From Voyage Pittoresque dans le Brésil (Picturesque Voyage to Brazil), with more than 100 illustrations, still one of the most important documents about 19th-century Brazil.
(left) Joseph Skinner (British), 2 plates from The Present State of Peru, London, 1805(right) Carl Nebel (German) Indian Charcoal-Makers, watercolor reproduced as lithograph in Voyage Picturesque and Archeological in the Most Interesting Parts of Mexico, Paris, 1836
2005 facsimile of Skinner’s 1805
book available through Amazon.com
Carl Nebel (German) watercolor, 1829-1834, reproduced as a lithograph in Voyage Picturesque and Archeological in the Most Interesting Parts of Mexico, Paris, 1836
Edouard Pingret (French, 1788-1875), (left) Indian, oil on canvas, after 1857; (right) Waterseller, c. after 1857, o/c, 23” HFrom 1850 to 1855 Pingret lived and worked in Mexico City, exhibiting annually at the Academia de Bellas Artes. Costumbrismo
Catalogue of Pingret’s
(left) Claudio Gay (French) Costumes of Country People, Physical and Political Historical Atlas of Chile, Paris, 1854(right) Juan Manuel Blanes (Uruguayan), Dusk, n.d., oil on cardboard, 9 ½ “ H
Carmelo Fernandez, (left) Mestizo Farmers of Anis, Ocana Province(right) Notables of the Capital, Santander Province, Colombia , Colombia, 1850-9, watercolor, National Library, Bogota
Velasco, in the context of the buildings section of his class in landscape painting, as a student at the Academy San Carlos in Mexico City, shows how, with the pretext of progress and modernization, the monasteries were destroyed to "straighten out" the contours of the city. Modernization of Mexico is documented in Velasco’s oeuvre with obvious ambiguity.
(right) José Maria Velasco, Valley of Oaxaca, 1888, oil on canvas, 42 x 63” (left) Claude Lorraine (French, 1604-1682), Pastoral Landscape 1638
Velasco, Metlac Ravine, Viewed from near the Station in Fortin, 1897, o/c, 41” h(right) anonymous photograph of Metlac ravine, 1910Modernization of Mexico
José Maria Velasco, Valley of Mexico from the Hill of Santa Isabel, 1877, o/c, 5’3”x7’6”(right) Thomas Cole (English-American, 1801-1848, Hudson River School) View from Mt. Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm (The Oxbow), 1836
(left) José GuadalupePosada (Mexican, 1852-1913), Artists’ Purgatory (right) J.J.Grandville (Jean Ignace Isidore Gérard, French, 1803-1847) Chamber of Deputies, 1867, engraving
In 1900 Maucci Brothers, a Spanish publisher, commissioned Posada to illustrate a series of pamphlets for children on the history of Mexico. Each pamphlet measuring 4 3/4 x 3 1/4 in. is approximately 16 pages. The cover illustrations are probably the only mechanically produced chromolithographs that Posada ever did. Jean Charlot collection, University of Hawaii
Posada, Streets of the City of Mexico on the Morning of 9 February 1913, n.d., zinc engraving,(right) Skeletons at a fractional price as never seen before in all of the Capital.