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Chapter 3. Linux Administration Part 1. Overview. This presentation covers : User Interface Administration Files System and Services Management. User Interface Administration. Log In Procedures . Users can log on to a Linux operating system using the Command-Line Interface (CLI).

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Chapter 3

Linux Administration

Part 1


This presentation covers :

  • User Interface Administration
  • Files System and Services Management
log in procedures
Log In Procedures
  • Users can log on to a Linux operating system using the Command-Line Interface (CLI).
  • The Linux CLI provides the user with successive text only prompts to enter a user name and password.
  • No additional domain information is required.
gui interface
GUI Interface
  • "X Window" allows Linux to operate similar to the other GUIs.
  • A typical X Window interface will look somewhat familiar to a Windows user.
  • Linux users can completely customize their X Window interface to meet their specific needs.
cli interface
CLI Interface
  • The Linux command-line interface (CLI) allows the user to interact with the system in the same manner as the Windows command prompt.
  • Users should try entering basic commands.
  • Do not attempt to randomly guess commands, since such careless activity could have impacts on the system.
cli interface1
CLI Interface
  • The man command displays online manual pages for any of the hundreds of Linux commands.
  • A listing of all the Linux commands with a brief description of what they do can be obtained by entering man intro at the command line.
  • A man page can be displayed on the man command itself by typing man man.
cli interface2
CLI Interface
  • A number of different headings or informational areas are in a typical man page.
  • All commands will have at least a name, a synopsis, and a description.
  • A common Linux command is cd, which allows users to change directories.
cli interface3
CLI Interface
  • The ls command can be issued with the [options] and the [files] list to display the contents of a specific directory.
  • When the ls command is issued without these options the contents of the current directory will be listed.
  • Also more than one filename can be given so that the ls command will list the contents of multiple directories.
the linux shells
The Linux Shells
  • The Linux shells operate as a command interpreter.
  • The command interpreter from the MS-DOS environment is similar.
  • It combines the interactive features that make the C shell popular with the easier to use shell programming syntax of the Bourne shell.
  • The Born Again Shell is referred to as the bash shell and is used for many ’UNIX-like’ systems.
files and directories
Files and Directoriesالملفات والمجلدات


Linux uses a hierarchical file system

نظام الملفات المتدرج (الشجري)



  • Directories contain sub-directories
  • Directories and sub-directories hold files





directory hierarchy
Directory Hierarchy






















directory hierarchy cont
Directory Hierarchy (Cont…)















creating sharing directories
Creating/Sharing Directories
  • Creating files and directories in Linux is a matter of knowing the proper commands and how to use them.
  • Some of the commands use the same syntax for both files and directories, while others are different.
using the find and grep commands
Using the Find and Grep Commands
  • The find command is used to locate one or more files assuming that you know their approximate filenames.
  • The find command lets you specify filters, and run commands on the contents of entire directory trees.
  • The grep command allows you to search for a pattern in a list of files.
  • The way to search for a string with the grep command is to put the words you are searching for together in single quotes.

This presentation covers :

  • User Accounts and Group Accounts
  • Files System configuration files
  • Benefits of Networking
  • Daemons
user and group accounts in a linux environment
User and Group Accounts in a Linux Environment
  • User accounts in a Linux system allow several people to be logged into the system at the same time or at different times without interfering with each other.
  • The term user and account are sometimes used interchangeably.
  • There are several important terms that will need to be learned.
user and group accounts in a linux environment1
User and Group Accounts in a Linux Environment
  • The Linux operating system is both a multiuser and multitasking system.
  • The most important user account is the Superuser account; also referred to as the root account.
  • This account is used by the system administrator to perform any administrative tasks on a Linux system.
  • The Superuser account can be used in several ways:
    • root login
    • Su
    • Sudo
    • SUID root files
adding and removing user accounts
Adding and Removing User Accounts
  • The root user creates other Linux users with the useraddcommand.
  • When this command is entered at the prompt, Linux performs many simultaneous tasks to create the user account, such as creating a home directory and assigning default permissions.
  • Flags and parameters exist for the useraddcommand and can be found by viewing its man page.
creating a new user
Creating a new user
  • Use the useraddcommand
  • Use the passwdcommand to set password
  • Try it… logon as root

[[email protected]]# useradd amal

[[email protected]]# passwd amal

Changing password for user amal

New UNIX password:

Retype new UNIX password:

passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully

[[email protected]]#

managing user accounts
Managing User Accounts
  • The process of disabling an account requires a bit more effort.
  • The system administrator must edit the file that stores all user information on the system and manually disable the user's password.
  • User passwords are stored in a central file known as the ‘shadow’ file, which is located in the /etc directory.
  • This file can be edited with a text editor like vi Editor.
creating groups and adding users to groups
Creating Groups and Adding users to Groups
  • Every group on a Linux system can have anywhere from no members to as many members as there are user accounts on the systems.
  • Group membership is controlled by the /etc/group file.
  • To change to a different group after logging into the system use the newgrp command.
  • The syntax for this command is newgrp for example: newgrp engineering.
  • The gpasswd command can be used to modify existing groups.