John F. Kennedy 1961-1963
The Election of 1960 The election of 1960 was the closest since 1884; Kennedy defeated Richard Nixon by fewer than 119,000 votes.
Did You Know? • • He was a decorated naval officer in World War II.• He received the Pulitzer Prize for his book, "Profiles in Courage."• He served exactly 1,000 days in office.• He was the first president born in the 20th century and the youngest president ever elected. • He is the only Roman • Catholic president • He could read 1600 words a minute.
Kennedy’s Inaugural Address Kennedy was the youngest person ever to be elected president. His youth helped provide the theme to his inaugural address: “Let the word go forth… That the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans… The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it…And so, my fellow Americans-ask not what your country can do for you-ask what you can do for your country.”
The Camelot Years With JFK’s youthful glamour and his talented advisors, the Kennedy White House reminded many of a modern- day Camelot, the mythical court of King Arthur.
Kennedy’s Plan • New Frontier • Aid to education • Health insurance • Create a Department of Urban Affairs • Help the migrant workers • “ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country? • Had difficulty passing “New Frontier Programs” due to a thin mandate of approval -- CONGRESS
The New Frontier President Kennedy’s legislative program to provide medical care for the elderly…. To rebuild blighted urban areas….
To aid education…. To bolster the national defense….
To increase international aid…. To expand the space program.
To provide volunteer assistance to developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. And to promote civil rights.
Reformist Court?Warren Court Reforms • (CIVIL RIGHTS) • Baker vs Carr(62) – federal courts can hear lawsuits seeking state authorities to redraw electoral districts • Reynolds vs Simms(64) – state legislative districts should be equal in population • Heart of Atlanta Motel vs US(64) – Desegregation established in the Civili Right Act of 1964 is legal • Loving v Virginia(67) – States may not ban interracial marriage
(DUE PROCESS) • Mapp v Ohio – unlawfully seized evidence is inadmissible in court • Gideon vs Wainwright – Suspects are entitled to a court appointed attorney if unable to afford one on their own • Escobedo vs Illinois – Accused persons have the right to an attorney during questioning • Miranda vs Arizona – police must inform suspects of their rights during the arrest process
Engel vs. Vitale – state-mandated prayer in school banned • Abbington School District vs. Schemp – state-mandated Bible readings in school banned • New York Times vs Sullivan – Celebrities may sue the media for libel in certain circumstances
Kennedy & Global Challenges • PEACE CORPS = purpose is to help less developed countries fight poverty by sending young Americans to perform humanitarian services • Bolivia • Chad • ** one of Kennedy’s lasting legacies • ALLIANCE FOR PROGRESS
Bay Of Pigs • 1959 Castro over throws Batista in Cuba and established ties with the USSR • USSR to close for comfort – • CIA begins to train and arm Cuban Exiles ( La Brigada) – used as an invasion force • April 17, 1961 – invade CUBA ( HUGE FAILURE) • CONTAINMENT?
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS – October 22, Kennedy announced to the US that spy planes had taken aerial photos of CUBA – USSR had placed missiles locked and loaded and aimed at US • NAVAL BLOCKADE • NUCLEAR HOLOCAUST • October 28 RESOLVE
NASA • National Aeronautics and Space Administration • Created in 1958 • Civilian agency which was created to take over space exploration programs from the various military branches to increase coordination and efficiency
Yuri Gagarin • 1934 – 1968 • Soviet “cosmonaut” who became the first man in space in April of 1961 • Declared a “Hero of the Soviet Union,” he was never allowed to return to space due to his value as an instrument of propaganda; instead, he was sent on a world tour to promote Soviet superiority • Ironically, he later died in a plane crash
Project Mercury • 1959 – 1963 • NASA’s first program designed to put an American in space • Capsule could carry only a single astronaut • Cost $384 million, but succeeded at getting the US’ manned space program off the ground
John Glenn • 1921 – Present • US Marine pilot who became the first American to orbit the earth in 1962 • Went on to serve as US Senator from Ohio from 1974 – 1999 • In 1998, became the oldest person to fly in space when he took part in a shuttle mission at age 77
Kennedy Targets the Moon • “[We] commit … before this decade is out, to landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth … But why, some say, the moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask why climb the highest mountain? …We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win”
Project Gemini • 1965 – 1966 • Could carry 2 astronauts • 10 manned flights cost $5.4 billion • Purpose was to develop the technologies that would be needed to make longer space flights possible (such as a trip to the moon and back)
Apollo Program • Series of 6 manned missions to the moon between 1969 and 1972 • Each Apollo craft carried 3 astronauts • Suffered two major accidents: during the Apollo I training exercise in 1967, 3 astronauts died in an oxygen fire, and an explosion onboard Apollo 13 forced the crew to abort the mission • Cost $25.4 billion
“The Eagle has landed” • July 20, 1969 • Apollo 11 became the first manned-mission to land on the moon after a 4 day journey • Represented a major victory for the US, since we had finally surpassed Soviet achievement in space (to this day, no other nation has landed astronauts on the moon)
Neil Armstrong • 1930 – Present • The first of only 12 men to walk on the moon • Former Navy pilot and Korean War veteran, Armstrong retired from NASA almost immediately after returning from the moon and became a college professor
“That’s one small step for a man …” • “… one giant leap for mankind.” • After the success of the Apollo program, Americans tired of the “space race” – we had clearly beaten the Soviets and Americans were now distracted by more “down to earth” matters such as the Vietnam War, Civil Rights, and Watergate
JFK Assassination A Conspiracy?
Motorcade Route • Dealey Plaza • Main Street • Right on Houston St. • Hard Left on Elm St. • Texas School Book Depository • Grassy Knoll • Triple Underpass