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Hydrocarbons. What to know?. facts. types. Drawing, naming, and identifying hydrocarbons. Halogenated hydrocarbons. branched Halogenated hydrocarbons. ABOUT HYDROCARBONS. most commonly used are: Methane Methanol Gasoline Diesel Ammonia.

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slide1

Hydrocarbons

What to know?

  • facts
  • types
  • Drawing, naming, and identifying hydrocarbons
  • Halogenated hydrocarbons
  • branched Halogenated hydrocarbons
slide2

ABOUT HYDROCARBONS

most commonly used are: Methane Methanol Gasoline Diesel Ammonia

  • reforming- process of extracting hydrogen from fossil fuels
  • today, this is the principal and least expensive method of producing hydrogen
  • unfortunately, reforming emits pollutants and consumes non-renewable fuels
slide3

ABOUT: HYDROCARBONS

  • almost all hydrocarbon products are produced from petroleum or crude oil extracted from the earth
  • origin of petroleum is believed to be from the anaerobic decomposition of marine plankton and algae
  • crude oil is a variable mixture of many hydrocarbons and other chemicals. (Separation is achieved with a cracking plant)
  • Propane gas can be liquefied under pressure and stored in steel tanks and bottles
slide4

ABOUT: HYDROCARBONS

  • This makes it economical to manufacture propane and compress it into a liquid for shipping
  • Butane can be maintained as a liquid at even lower pressures and can be safely held in plastic butane lighters
  • Heat energy is released when hydrocarbons "burn"
slide5

ABOUT HYDROCARBONS

  • when the chain is between 5 and 9 carbons, the hydrocarbon is gasoline
  • about a 12 carbons and it is diesel & 20 carbons is motor oil
  • a chain of hundreds to thousands of carbon and hydrogen make plastic
slide6

ABOUT HYDROCARBONS

  • By combining oxygen with carbon and hydrogen, we can make any kind of alcohol
  • Ethanol is drinking alcohol (also called grain alcohol)
  • Methanol is also called wood alcohol
  • Three carbon alcohol is called propanol
  • If the alcohol group (OH) is on the middle carbon, it's called isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol)
slide7

ABOUT HYDROCARBONS-Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates(aka “CARBS”)- compounds that use carbon, oxygen, & hydrogen

  • dehydrated means loss of water
  • hydrated means to add water.
slide8

Writing HYDROCARBONS

HYDROCARBON-

  • contains 2 elements: hydrogen & carbon
  • names are based on a root word & suffix
  • root word that indicates the # of carbons present
  • suffix indicates which type of bond is present

Rootword tells # of carbons

Suffix  tells type of bonds

slide9

3 BASIC HYDROCARBONS

1) alkanes - hydrocarbons with single bonds

2) alkenes - hydrocarbons with double bonds

3) alkynes - hydrocarbons with triple bonds

slide10

HYDROCARBONS

HYDROGEN

CARBON

  • has 6 electrons
  • has 1 electrons
  • oxidation #4
  • oxidation #1
  • ALWAYS NEEDS 4 bonds
  • ALWAYS NEEDS 1 bond

6

C

12

1

H

1

slide11

HYDROCARBONS

Rootword tells # of carbons

slide12

HYDROCARBONS

Suffix  tells type of bonds

slide13

DRAWING HYDROCARBONS

practice drawing & include chemical formula:

1. ethane

2. ethene

3. propyne

3. propyne

1. ethane

2. ethene

C2H6

C2H4

C3H4

slide14

BRANCHED HYDROCARBONS

INFO:

  • The # of hydrocarbons in the branch follows the same naming rules as basic hydrocarbons
  • branch name usually ends in “yl”
slide15

DRAWING Branched Hydrocarbons

1st draw the amount of carbons given in the root word

2nd draw the # of bonds indicated in the suffix

3rd add the branch where indicated

4th add hydrogen to all of the available bonding areas

Eth=2

2 carbon chain

All single bonds

3ethyl pentane

formula: C7H16

5 carbons

2 carbon chain will go on the 3rd carbon of the main hydrocarbon

slide16

DRAWING Branched Hydrocarbons

Pentane – carbons are numbered

C CCCC

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th

Always numbered from left to right

slide17

3ethyl pentane

DRAWING:

H

H

H

H

H

C CCCC

H

H

H

H

H

H

CC

H

H

H

H

formula: C7H16

H

slide18

BRANCHED HYDROCARBONS

Uses prefix when several different halogens are to be used

Use the #’s in front to indicate which carbon the sub will go on

slide19

HYDROCARBONS-Carbohydrates

EX: sugar, starch, cellulose (wood fiber), and glycogen

  • The small black granules (dots) are glycogen
  • Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals and humans which is the same as the starch in plants. Glycogen is synthesized(made) and stored mainly in the liver and the muscles
slide20

HALOGENATED-SUBSTITUTED HYDROCARBONS

  • you can substitution of halogens with alkanes
  • in a substitution reaction, one atom of hydrogen is replaced by one atom of a halogen.
  • this type of reaction is called a halogenation.
  • the halogenation of alkanes occurs in the presence of light, making it a photochemical reaction. EX: methane (C2H4) reacts with chlorine (which occurs as a two-atom molecule Cl2) in the presence of light to produce methyl chloride, CH3Cl, and hydrogen chloride (HCl)
slide21

HALOGENATED-SUBSTITUTED HYDROCARBONS

These compounds can be differentiated according to various criteria, including:1. The type of halogen, for example fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, and iodo-.2. The type of carbon chain: open, closed, aromatic, saturated, unsaturated. 3. The number of atoms in the halogen: mono-, di- and poly halogen compounds.

slide22

HALOGENATED-SUBSTITUTED HYDROCARBONS

  • The name of the compound is based on the number of carbon atoms present
  • where the substitution of a halogen for a hydrogen atom has taken place.
  • Before the name of the hydrocarbon the names of the substitued halogens are given, in alphabetical order if possible.
  • Each carbon atom is assigned a number so as to place the substituted halogen at as low a number as possible. Then the number of the carbon which has been substituted is placed before the halogen prefix.
slide23

HALOGENATED-SUBSTITUTED HYDROCARBONS

  • For example: Fluorine is the first of the halogen group
  • means that it is able to substitute for all of the other halogens in a chemical bond.
  • hydrocarbons containing fluorine are very stable, non- flammable, and are not poisonous.
  • they are used as an ingredient in aerosol sprays or as the refrigerant liquid in refrigerators, and as a solvent. Their use has become less popular in recent years because of the damage they do in the atmosphere to the ozone layer.