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EXTENDING GOVERNANCE: THE EU’S ENLARGEMENT AND NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICIES. Dimitar Bechev St Antony’s College, Oxford Visiting Associate Professor, Hitotsubashi University REGULATION CROSSING BORDERS 31 March 2010. QUESTIONS.

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extending governance the eu s enlargement and neighbourhood policies

EXTENDING GOVERNANCE:THE EU’S ENLARGEMENT AND NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICIES

Dimitar Bechev St Antony’s College, Oxford

Visiting Associate Professor, Hitotsubashi University

REGULATION CROSSING BORDERS31 March 2010

questions
QUESTIONS
  • How does the EU extend rules, institutions and policies towards ‘third countries’?
  • What are the political dynamics and limits of the Union’s ‘transformative power’?
normative power
NORMATIVE POWER

Ian Manners (2002): “the ability to define what passes for ‘normal’ in a globalized world”.

Norms vary: political (e.g. democratic governance, cooperation), economic (western European welfare state?), functional/regulatory (the Single Market, the acquis as a whole).

eastern enlargement
EASTERN ENLARGEMENT
  • Google “enlargement” “most successful” “EU”: 2,150,000 results;
  • Western Balkans – Croatia negotiating accession since 2005; the rest – antechamber;
  • Turkey – negotiating accession.
  • Regulatory convergence (the third Copenhagen Criterion 1993) – is key, though much attention is paid on political conditionality.
acquis communautaire
ACQUIS COMMUNAUTAIRE

Added to that – political chapters, e.g. Judicial reform; Foreign, security and defence policy.

european neighbourhood policy
EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
  • ENP seeks to reproduce enlargement – similar goals, similar instruments (see handout);
  • EU policies are generic – because of institutional inertia and hub-and-spoke structure of relations with peripheral countries and regions.
  • Differentiation: Eastern dimension (Eastern Partnership) vs. Southern Dimension (Union for the Mediterranean); political incentives
  • Economic incentives: “Deep free trade” and “stake in the Single Market” vs. membership vs. trade liberalization;
  • Institutional incentives: participation in EU bodies – e.g. in executive agencies – for frontrunner countries: Ukraine, Moldova, Israel, Morocco;
access vs convergence
ACCESS VS. CONVERGENCE

Bechev and Nicolaidis, Journal of Common Market Studies, 2010.

modes of governance
MODES OF GOVERNANCE
  • Conflict management: ESDP missions in Western Balkans, ENP area;
  • Gatekeeping: access/convergence, esp. regarding the Single Market;
  • Policy networks: external governance stricto sensu (cf. Lavenex), especially in areas where acquis is weak.
caveats and constraints
CAVEATS AND CONSTRAINTS
  • How consistent and coherent are the EU demands to proximate countries?
  • How significant is the reward relative to the costs?
  • Sequencing: which parts of the acquis when?
  • Is there sufficient institutional capacity to take onboard EU regulatory frameworks?
  • Does the EU have the capabilities to monitor compliance and enforce rules?
sectoral case studies
SECTORAL CASE STUDIES

Energy Community - Set up by EU and Western Balkans in Oct 2005. Liberalization of energy sector based on EU directives adopted in 1996/2003/2009 – unbundling, third-party access; Electricity and gas. Policy dialogue on oil, social issues;

- Reproduces EU institutions on a subregional level;

  • Depends on reform progress across policy areas, physical infrastructure, coherence of EU framework;
  • Implementation problems – e.g. in Macedonia;
  • Enlargement: Moldova (March 2010), potentially Ukraine.
sectoral case studies1
SECTORAL CASE STUDIES

Transport Community

  • Launched by the Slovene Presidency of the Council (2008);
  • Future treaty - harmonization with the acquis reciprocal access to transport services market;
  • acquis is particularly extensive: market access and social, technical, fiscal, safety and environmental requirements;
  • Political vs. economic logic.
concluding remarks
CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • Multilateral arrangements – early adoption of the acquis in core areas expected to yield economic and political benefits;
  • Functional bridge between the Western Balkans (enlargement) and the western CIS (ENP/EaP) area;
  • As enlargement is slowing down after Croatia and Iceland (2012?), regional cooperation might become more prominent instrument for regulatory convergence.