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The Chemistry of Life. 24.1 A Strategy for Life 24.2 Carbohydrates 24.3 Amino Acids and Their Polymers 24.4 Lipids 24.5 Nucleic Acids 24.6 Metabolism. A Strategy for Life. Objectives Identify the two major cell types that occur in nature

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the chemistry of life

The Chemistry of Life

24.1 A Strategy for Life

24.2 Carbohydrates

24.3 Amino Acids and Their Polymers

24.4 Lipids

24.5 Nucleic Acids

24.6 Metabolism

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

a strategy for life

A Strategy for Life

Objectives

Identify the two major cell types that occur in nature

Describe the chemical changes that occur during photosynthesis

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

the structure of cells
The Structure of Cells
  • Prokaryotic Cells
    • primitive cells
      • only cell membrane
        • chromosome
        • cytoplasm
  • Karyotic Cells
    • organelles
      • nucleus
      • ER
      • mitochondria

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

energy and the carbon cycle
Energy and the Carbon Cycle
  • Photosynthesis
    • uses sunlight’s energy to reduce carbon dioxide to form compounds with C-H bonds, most commonly glucose(C6H12O6)
  • Respiration
    • releases energy from glucose to reform carbon dioxide and water

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

photosynthesis respiration
Photosynthesis & Respiration

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Objectives

Identify where glucose is found in nature

Describe how two simple sugars can be linked

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

monosaccharides
Monosaccharides
  • Carbohydrates
    • monomers and polymers of aldehydes (aldose) and ketones (ketoses) with numerous hydroxide groups
    • Monosaccharide
      • simple “single” sugars
      • most common are the “hexoses” C6H12O6
        • glucose – corn, blood, grape sugar (aldose)
        • fructose – fruit, honey sugar (ketose)

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

disaccharides polysaccharides
Disaccharides & Polysaccharides
  • Disaccharides
    • two monosaccharides joined by condensation (dehydration) reaction
      • Sucrose – glucose + fructose
      • Maltose – glucose + glucose
      • Lactose – glucose + galactose
  • Polysaccharides
    • multiple monosaccharides or disaccharides joined to form a large polymer
      • Amylose (starch) – glucose or α-maltose
      • Cellulose – glucose or β-maltose

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

amino acids and their polymers

Amino Acids and Their Polymers

Objectives

Diagram the structure of an amino acid

Describe how peptide bonds form and identify what determines the properties of peptides and proteins

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

amino acid
Amino Acid
  • Consist of a central carbon atom with:

Carboxyl group

Amino group

Hydrogen atom

Side Chain (variable group)

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

amino acid structure
Amino Acid Structure

Hydrogen atom

Carboxyl

group

Amino

group

Side Chain

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

peptide bond
Peptide Bond
  • DehydrationSynthesis that joins amino acids
    • Carboxyl group of one reacts withamino group of another.
    • Water is removed.

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

peptide bond forming
Peptide Bond Forming

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

dipeptide
Dipeptide

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

levels of protein structure
Levels of Protein Structure
  • Primary Structure
    • which amino acids used
    • total number joined
    • order of the amino acids
  • Secondary Structure
    • based on primary
    • interaction between -C=O groups and -NH groups
      • forms -helix or -pleat
  • Tertiary Structure
    • based on both primary and secondary structures
    • due to interactions between residue groups
      • disulfide bond of cysteine
  • Quaternary Structure
    • based on all previous levels
    • due to residue interactions on different protein chains
    • not in all proteins

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

enzymes
Enzymes
  • biologicalcatalysts
    • Catalysts - speed up reactions by lowering activation energy; they are not changed by the reaction.
  • All enzymes are proteins with a 3-D shape which helps to explain how they work.

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

lock and key theory
Lock and Key Theory
  • Part of that shape is the activesite.
  • The active site is a region that can hold the substrates - materials an enzyme catalyzes

Active Site

  • enzyme

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

substrates without enzyme
Substrates without Enzyme
  • To react substrates mustcollideexactly right to form a new molecule.
  • If they hit any other way no molecule will form.

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

substrate fit active site
Substrate fit Active Site
  • Substrates fit only one way, assuring proper collision.

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

enzyme substrate complex
Enzyme Substrate Complex
  • The substrates are held together forming an enzymesubstratecomplex that lowers the activationenergy allowing the new molecule to form.

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

catalysis is completed
Catalysis is completed
  • The enzyme releases the combined substrates and is now free to repeat the process.

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

enzyme cofactors
Enzyme Cofactors
  • Some enzymes cannot form an active site by themselves.
  • They need a “non protein” cofactor or coenzyme to complete the site.
  • Most cofactors are vitamins
  • Cofactor 

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

lipids

Lipids

Objectives

Identify the physical property that distinguishes lipids from other biological molecules

Describe the structure of a lipid bilayer

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

triglycerides
Triglycerides
  • Lipids
    • water insoluble compounds
      • Fats
        • solid at room temperature
      • Oils
        • liquid at room temperature
      • Triglyceride
        • triesters of fatty acids and glycerol
        • used for long term energy storage

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

saponification
Saponification
  • Saponification
    • hydrolysis of a fat or oil with aqueous alkali-metal hydroxide
    • forms soap

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

phospholipids
Phospholipids
  • Lipids with phosphate groups
    • hydrophilic end – likes water
    • hydrophobic end – water hating
    • forms lipid bilayer of biological membranes

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

cell membrane
Cell Membrane

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

nucleic acids

Nucleic Acids

Objectives

Describe the function of ATP in cells

Identify the functions of DNA and RNA

Describe how information is sorted in genetic material and how genes can mutate

Describe how DNA fingerprinting and recombinant DNA technology are used

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

dna and rna
DNA and RNA
  • polymers composed of nucleotides
    • nucleotides
      • nitrogen base
      • sugar
      • phosphate group
  • DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid – Double Helix
    • sugar – deoxyribose
    • bases – adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
  • RNA – ribonucleic acid – Single Helix
    • sugar –ribose
    • bases – adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

dna rna connection
DNA RNA Connection
  • DNA controls cell by protein synthesis
  • RNA transmits information in DNA
  • Three kinds of RNA
    • Messenger RNA (mRNA) – carries instructions to ribosome
    • Transfer RNA (tRNA) – carries amino acids to ribosome
    • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – forms part of the ribosome

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis
  • DNA controls through TWO (2) processes:
    • Transcription – RNA synthesis – DNA acts as a template to form mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
    • Translation – protein synthesis – the RNA’s made by DNA interact at the ribosome to join amino acids

Interactive Tutorial Link about Protein Synthesis

PBS Interactive Link DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

dna nucleotides
DNA Nucleotides

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

dna double helix
DNA Double Helix
  • Base Pairing
    • Adenine to Thymine
    • Thymine to Adenine
    • Guanine to Cytosine
    • Cytosine to Guanine

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

genetic code
Genetic Code
  • 20 different amino acids
  • Only variable in DNA are bases
  • Bases down side of helix “code” acids
    • Sense side – makes protein
    • Anti-sense side –replicates
  • How many bases name an acid?
    • 1 base code – only 4 acids named
    • 2 base code – (4x4) only 16 acids named
    • 3 base code – (4x4x4) allows 64 unique names
      • Allows duplicate words (synonyms) for acids
      • Allows “start” and “stop” codes

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

cracking the code
Cracking the Code
  • Nirenberg Experiment
    • NIH scientist studied process in bacteria
      • Made mRNA of one base only “uracil”
      • 20 test tubes – one for each amino acid
        • Only test tube with phenylalanine formed a polypeptide
      • Found first triplet “codon” uuu = phe
        • Codon – 3 bases in DNA and mRNA that “names” an amino acid
    • Experiment repeated by others to “translate” all codons

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

the genetic code
The Genetic Code
  • Is the same in ALL LIFE
  • Note synonyms

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

gene mutation
Gene Mutation
  • Mutation
    • change in the DNA sequence
      • substitution
      • addition
      • deletion
  • Genetic Diseases
    • sickle cell
      • 1 error out of 4,000
      • glutamic acid replaced by valine

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

dna fingerprinting
DNA Fingerprinting
  • DNA fingerprints can be used to identify individuals from samples of hair, skin cells, or body fluids
    • PCR used to “amplify” DNA sample
    • Restriction Enzymes used to cut segments
    • Electrophoresis
      • used to separate segments
      • each individual has a different pattern of segments

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

recombinant dna technology
Recombinant DNA Technology
  • methods used to remove DNA from one chain and insert it into another chain
    • Medical Applications
      • human insulin gene in bacterium
      • human growthhormone gene in bacterium
    • Agricultural Applications
      • genetically altered crops
        • pest resistant
    • Cloning

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

metabolism

Metabolism

Objectives

Describe the function of ATP in cells

Distinguish between catabolism and anabolism

Describe the nitrogen cycle

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

slide41
ATP
  • ATP stands for Adenosine Triphosphate
    • energy carrying nucleotide
      • transports energy from spontaneous (release energy) to nonspontaneous (use energy) reactions
      • store energy
        • ADP + P + free energy  ATP
      • release energy
        • ATP  ADP + P + free energy
  • Adenine 
  • Phosphates
  • have energy
  • Ribose 
  • Adenine 
  • Phosphates
  • energy released
  • Ribose 

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

metabolism1
Metabolism
  • all the chemical reactions carried out by an organism
    • Catabolism
      • reactions that breakdown materials
        • release free energy
        • provide building blocks
    • Anabolism
      • reactions that build and maintain organism
        • require free energy
        • use building blocks

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007

nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen Fixing
    • N2NH3

Created by C. Ippolito July 2007