The Republic of Cuba. Background. Cuba is very close to the United States--93.2 miles away. Background. Size: 110,860 sq km--slightly smaller than Pennsylvania, largest country in the Caribbean Mostly plains with hills and mountains in the southeast
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Background • Cuba is very close to the United States--93.2 miles away
Background • Size: 110,860 sq km--slightly smaller than Pennsylvania, largest country in the Caribbean • Mostly plains with hills and mountains in the southeast • Natural Resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, chromium, copper, salt, timber, silica, petroleum, arable land • Spanish is the official language • Various religions are practiced but Roman Catholic is the majority 60%
Background • Life expectancy: Male-75 Female-80 • Spends 10.6% of GDP on health care-6.4 physicians per 1000 in the USA its 2.4 per 1000 • Spends 12.9% of GDP on public education #2 in the world the USA is ranked #60 • Population: 11,061,886 (July 13) 77th in the world ranking
Government • From the Cuban Constitution: Article 5 “The Communist Party of Cuba, Martian and of Marxist-Leninist, the organized vanguard of the Cuban nation, is the superior leading force of the society and the State, organizing and guiding the common efforts aimed at the highest goals of the construction of socialism and advancement toward the communist society.” • So yea its a communist state.
Government • Executive Branch: President-Raul Castro (Feb. 08), First Vice President-Miguel Diaz-Canal (Feb. 13) President is the chief of state and head of government. 5 year terms last election held Feb. 2013 (percentage of vote guess?) • Legislative Branch: unicameral National Assembly of People’s Power is based on population and has 614 seats, 5 year terms. Communist part is the only legal party and officially sanctioned candidates run unopposed • Judicial Branch: elected by the National Assembly
cuban economy • Cuba traditionally has a totally state planned economy with low cost housing, health care, education and food credits provided by the state. • GDP $121 billion #68 in the world, 2012 3.1% growth rate (tourism) • $5.6 billion in exports (2012) Export partners: China 24.8%, Canada 21.5%, Venezuela 7.1%, Netherlands 7.1%, Spain 6.5% (2011) • What do they export: petroleum, nickel, medical products, sugar tobacco fish, coffee, citrus • What do they import: petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals • A China like economic transition could be beginning...
Cuban Economy • Private ownership of homes and cars and small growth in private industry has been allowed recently. A Chinese like economic shift could be starting...
Human Rights • The Fidel Castro regime was notorious at repressing virtually all forms of political dissent and Raul continues to enforce political conformity. • They have used short-term detentions, beatings, public acts of repudiation, travel restriction and forced exile to prevent any oppositional political parties or ideology from gaining a foothold. • The U.S., UN and many other nations have pressured Cuba to change these policies.
History-U.S.A Relations • Cuba was a democracy then was taken over by a former President Batista in 1952--dictatorship that co-operated well with US corporations and allowed total access and cheap labor (the mafia and Godfather 2) • Fidel Castro=lawyer and former MLB pitching prospect, let a failed revolt in 1953 was put in prison, then released and went to Mexico to plan a future revolt • Castro returns and successfully wins the Cuban Revolution in 1959 and removes Batista from power (Castro becomes prime minister, Raul is his deputy and Che Guevara becomes 3rd in command) and in 1960 he nationalizes all US businesses without compensation
US/Cuba-escalation • Bay of Pigs fiasco--was failed invasion of Cuba by a 1400 person paramilitary group trained by the CIA. The goal was to overthrow the Castro led government. They were easily defeated by the Cuban armed forces in 3 days. • The failed invasion strengthened Castro’s regime and pushed him to openly proclaim communism and drew Cuba even closer to the USSR. It was celebrated in many Latin American countries as a failing of U.S. imperialism.
Cuban Missile crisis • October 1962 the USSR had began a plan to send nuclear weapons to Cuba to counterbalance U.S. nuclear missiles in Italy and Turkey. • U.S. found out and used a naval blockade of Cuba to prevent the Soviets from finishing the missiles • This lets to naval standoffs between U.S. and Soviet forces and pushed the world very close to a nuclear exchange
Cuban Missile Crisis • Further declined relations between Cuba/U.S.A and led to the Cuban Embargo--a collection of sanctions started in 1963 and solidified in 1992, increased by the HelmsBurton act and the Trade Sanctions and Reform Act of 2000
Aff Ground • Remove the Cuban Embargo (critical or policy versions), will the aff be quid pro quo? • U.S./Cuba Oil or Gas development co-op • Cuban telecommunications • Investment in biogass/ethanol production (sugarcane) • Change travel restrictions, ferry services, internships and employment exchanges, oil spill co-op, culture-sports-academic exchanges, expand visas, environmental studies co-op, Guantanamo--it just goes on and on and on... • “Options for Engagement,” Lexington Institute, April 2009
Cuba Aff Ground • With the largest number of possible Aff’s in the topic Cuba Affs advantage areas are endless... • U.S. relations/softpower, US economy, Cuban economy, human rights, democracy, energy impacts, endangered species loss, warming, imperialism, just scratching the surface. • US key warrants are important for these Affs but honestly you have 10 rounds vs Cuba Affs and hear 10 different Affs
Cuba Neg Ground • Potential DA’s include (there are many more): • Politics (typically good links) • Venezuelan Economy • China Relations • Terrorism • Hardliners (Cuba Politics)
Cuba Neg Ground • Potential Counterplans: • International actor (especially if the Aff has no us key warrants)--China, Russia, Brazil, EU, others can do the plan • Various advantage CPs • Political engagement CPs • Various K links, especially Aff’s that remove part but not all of the embargo could be good links to some K’s
Practice Cuba Debate • Hardliner DA practice speech in labs!