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Ancient History of Latin America. Ch. 9 Sec. 2. Ancient Empires. Olmecs: 1400 BC-500 BC Mxn Gulf Coast Ruled by priests & royals/elite No mention of military? Known for giant stone heads (40 tons) Mastered crafts- rubber, jade, stone carving. Ancient Empires. Mayan: 250-900

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ancient empires
Ancient Empires
  • Olmecs: 1400 BC-500 BC
    • Mxn Gulf Coast
    • Ruled by priests & royals/elite
      • No mention of military?
    • Known for giant stone heads (40 tons)
    • Mastered crafts- rubber, jade, stone carving
ancient empires1
Ancient Empires
  • Mayan: 250-900
    • Southern MX/ Northern CA

(Guatemala/ Yucatan Pen.)

      • Tikal & Chichen Itza major cities
    • Ruled by priests & nobles
      • Priests performed sacrifices for good harvests, war success
ancient empires2
Ancient Empires
  • Mayan cont’d
    • Extensive farming techniques/terracing
      • Lots of maize pop. grew quickly
    • Dev. glyphs for recording hist. & honoring gods (Spanish burned most books many left untranslated)
    • 365 day solar calendar
Tikal (Guatemala)

Chichen Itza

ancient empires3
Ancient Empires
  • Aztecs: 1300s-1520s
    • Founded Tenochtitlán in C. MX Island in Lake Texcoco
      • Chinampas- floating islands
      • Foods shared with world
        • maize (corn)
        • chocolate (xocoatl)- only for elite though- “Food of the gods”
        • tomatoes
ancient empires4
Ancient Empires
  • Aztecs cont’d
    • Ruled by emperor military, then majority (farmers), last were criminals & slaves
    • Priests had own class
      • Human sacrifices to sun

god to rise ea. day

        • Tens of thousands:

mostly P.O.W.s and some

noble family members

ancient empires5
Ancient Empires
  • Inca: 1430s-1530s
    • Andes Mtns, Ecuador  Chile
    • Ruled by emperor (Sapa Inca)
      • Then military (very oppressive)
    • Extensive road network thru mtns (rivals Romans)
      • Runners to warn of rebellion, invaders
      • All roads went thru Cuzco
ancient empires6
Ancient Empires
  • Inca cont’d
    • Used quipu for record keeping (for traders)
    • Spoke Quechua (dev. into ethnic grp.)
      • No written lang.
    • Masters of terracing & irrigation from Pac. Ocn.
    • Domesticated alpacas & llamas
decline of empires
Decline of Empires
  • Olmecs: ?? (volcano, absorbed)
  • Mayan: ?? (frequent war??, overpop. over farm??, plagues??)
  • Aztecs: Span. conquistador Hernán Cortés (1521)
  • Inca: Span. conquistador Francisco Pizarro (1535)
european conquests
European Conquests
  • From 1500s-1700s
    • Colonizing for power and resources for home country
      • Columbian Exchange
    • As disease killed many Natives, they began enslaving Africans to meet labor shortages
sources of discontent late 1700s
Sources of Discontent- Late 1700s
  • Viceroys- Spanish governors
  • Peninsulares- Spaniards living in LA
  • Creoles- straight Euro. descent
  • Mestizos- Native + Euro.
  • Mulattoes- Afn. + Euro.
  • Zambos- Native + Afn.
  • Amerindians- Natives

ALL distrusted one another

sources of discontent
Sources of Discontent
  • Peninsulares/Viceroys wanted self-rule
  • Creoles read works of Enlightenment thinkers; All looked to Amn & Fr. Rev wanted more rights
  • Nat. & Afns wanted freedom from slavery
  • Finally acted when Napoleon defeated Spain (made weaker)
haiti s struggle
Haiti’s Struggle
  • French-ruled
  • Sugar & coffee plantations = 1/2 million slaves lots of $ for France
  • 25,000 free (but not equal) mulattoes
haiti s struggle1
Haiti’s Struggle
  • Revolted in 1791
  • Led by Toussaint L’Ouverture
    • Former slave, but educated
  • Napoleon went in to regain, but Pres. TJ aided rebels
  • 1804: Complete independence
mexico s fight
Mexico’s Fight
  • Father Hidalgo: El Grito de Dolores
    • 1810: cry for independence
    • encouraged lower class (mestizos) to fight for indep. and more rights
    • Hidalgo was executed Fr. Jose Morales led fight (later executed)
  • Creoles (pure Span. descent) against rebels at 1st
mexico s fight1
Mexico’s Fight
  • 1820: new govn’t in Spain  scared Creoles  fought with rebels  won in 1821
  • Set up monarchy 1st, later a republic never stable
sim n bol var
Simón Bolívar
  • 1810: Bolivar led revolt in Venezuela  form republic (did not last)
  • Went on to Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia republics
  • Joined Jose de San Martin
    • Leader in Argentina & Chile
sim n bol var1
Simón Bolívar
  • Wars ended in 1824
  • Tried to unite lands into Gran Colombia 
    • Biggest problem: Power struggles caused huge civil wars turn to military
  • Napoleon beat Portugal 
  • Royals fled to Brazil 
  • King made reforms 
  • Left son Dom Pedro to rule…
  • But new powers in Portugal were against Dom Pedro…
  • He made Brazil independent constitutional monarchy
  • Freedom of press & religion; elected legislature
  • 1889: became republic w/o any violence
  • As the countries fought for indep., power went to new people
  • European & indigenous hist. stressed rank & privilege
  • So ppl of power and strength were natural fit
  • Enter the era of CAUDILLOS (dictators)
  • Haiti:
    • Instability stays
      • Blacks vs. mulattoes- assassination of each other’s leaders
      • Many military coups (even of democratically elected pres!), US occupancy, military dictatorships
      • UN peacekeepers present since 2004
  • Mexico:
    • Series of military dictatorships
      • beginning with Santa Anna
    • 1920s: Had “ify” multi-party elections (PRI ruled for 70+ yrs)
      • Charged with fraud, unfair elections
  • Venezuela
    • From Bolivar on, dictatorships gave into military regimes
  • Brazil:
    • Dom Pedro’s son helped econ. and ended slavery landowners revolted to oust emperor
      • Set up fed. Republic
    • Lack of democratic tradition brought about decades of dictatorships, Nazi, & Communist uprisings
    • 1985 marked 1st civilian president
  • People are unhappy REVOLT
  • Option A: the military puts out revolt and resumes power to keep order
  • Option B: rebels win & put in someone military/wealthy don’t like  military coup
caribbean independence
Caribbean Independence
  • 1898: Cuba from Spain
  • 1900s: Jamaica & Barbados from Britain
  • Some still under foreign control
panama canal
Panama Canal
  • Isthmus perfect place to connect oceans
  • Ferdinand de Lesseps (Suez Canal) tried but failed
    • Disease, geography, $
  • Bunau-Varilla asked US pres TR (1901) to aid building
panama canal1
Panama Canal
  • Panama was part of Colombia at time
    • Col. refused to give up land
  • Panamanians revolted, US helped them
  • Panama gained independence (1903)
  • Canal began in 1904, until 1914
  • US owned until 1999
  • Like others, ppl were discontent with govn’t
  • Cuba- gap b/w rich and poor
    • Revolution led by Fidel Castro set up Communist State with military dictator (1959)
    • Ruled until 06-08 left Raul (brother) in power
  • Mexico:
    • Mid-90s gave rise to Zapatista rebels
      • Fight for indigenous rights spreads
    • 2000 marked PAN take over (Vicente Fox, Felipe Calderon)
  • Venezuela:
    • Coups lasted into 90s, one even by current leftist Pres. Chavez
    • Electorate voted him in b/c he was a strong ruler in a time a of crisis