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Health Effects of Soldering. W. Smith Chandler, MD, MPH, MS. Toxicology. All substances are poisons. There is none which is not a poison. The right dose distinguishes a poison from a remedy. Paracelsus. Dose-Response. Low Dose Exposures. Subtle effects ignored IQ Personality

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health effects of soldering

Health Effects of Soldering

W. Smith Chandler, MD, MPH, MS

toxicology
Toxicology

All substances are poisons. There is none which is not a poison. The right dose distinguishes a poison from a remedy.

Paracelsus

low dose exposures
Low Dose Exposures
  • Subtle effects ignored
    • IQ
    • Personality
    • Reproductive
  • Latency periods complicate cause-effect
  • “No evidence of an effect”
  • ALARA
solder
Solder
  • Lead
  • Cadmium
  • Tin
  • Bismuth
  • Silver
  • Antimony
slide6
Lead
  • Ben Franklin
  • Fetoprotection
  • Half-life in blood, one month; bone, 27 years
lead levels
Lead Levels
  • PbB units-micrograms/dl
  • 50-medical removal
  • 30-adult symptoms
  • 10-pediatric standard
  • JLab-all below 10
  • Marker for other exposures
lead toxicity
Lead Toxicity
  • Can affect most organs
  • Developing nervous system has no clear NOEL for IQ
  • Adult nervous system
    • Psychological effects: reduced memory & slowed responses at PbB 20-40
    • Wrist and foot drop at higher levels
lead toxicity cont
Lead Toxicity, cont.
  • Anemia
  • Reduced kidney function
  • Hypertension with no clear NOEL
  • Reproductive effects in both sexes
  • Reduced immune function
    • Studied at levels of 20-85
    • Increased colds & flu; reduced IgA
cadmium
Cadmium
  • Itai Itai disease
  • Carcinogenic
  • Reduced brain function and intelligence
  • Irreversible kidney damage in solderers
  • Reduced lung function
  • Testicular damage in animal studies
other solder metals
Other Solder Metals
  • Tin: overexposure to inorganic is “stannosis” & involves lung irritation
  • Silver: argyria, argyrosis, possible kidney effects
  • Antimony: numerous effects with uncertain dose-response including GI irritation and possible cancer
  • Bismuth: Pepto-bismol, tellurium breath
flux and defluxers
Flux and Defluxers
  • Terpenes: taxol, menthol
  • Halogenated solvents: CNS depression (anesthetic gases), liver & kidney damage
    • Trichloroethylene
    • Trichloroethane (methyl chloroform)
  • Fluorides: toothpaste
  • Chlorides: irritants
summary
Summary
  • Numerous important toxicants
  • Dose-response relationships are inconsistent
  • Long term effects are nebulous
  • Practice ALARA
ad