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Page 296 1-3. January 7 th , 1789 The first U.S. Presidential election is held, only white men with property were allowed to vote. Bellwork Trivia. The Gilded Age. 1877-1890’s “Gilded Age” –covered with a thin layer of gold Referred to the state of the U.S. at the time

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Bellwork trivia

Page 296


January 7th, 1789

The first U.S. Presidential election is held, only white men with property were allowed to vote

Bellwork Trivia

The gilded age
The Gilded Age

  • 1877-1890’s

  • “Gilded Age” –covered with a thin layer of gold

    • Referred to the state of the U.S. at the time

      • A thin layer of prosperity was covering the political and social corruption, fraud, and immorality of politicians, business leaders, and government officials

        • Population was growing rapidly, industry was expanding through out the country

        • Abuse of powers, bribery, and corruption

Bellwork trivia

  • Jay Gould- used corruption and bribery to rise to be the director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Cornelius Vanderbilt-Owner of the New York Central Railroad bought a large number of Erie stock to have ownership of both railroads

  • Gould issued 50,000 new shares of Erie stock so that Vanderbilt did not have majority ownership

    • Then bribed government officials to make the new stock legal and prevent Vanderbilt from combining the two companies

  • Gould now had complete control of Erie RR, he then send Erie money to his own private company to build new Erie lines, now work was ever done but Gould got rich from Erie’s money. Shareholders attempted to sue Gould, but he avoided punishment by bribing judges to rule in his favor

Laissez faire economics
Laissez Faire Economics director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Laissez Faire- French meaning allow to be, hands off

  • A hands off approach to economics

    • The government takes a limited role in regulating business

    • The strongest and biggest businesses succeed

    • Government should only provide a free market for goods and labor

  • American’s supported this policy but supported government involvement when it benefitted themselves

    • Wanted Gov. to place high tariffs on foreign goods

      • This encouraged people to buy American goods

    • Provide Land Grants and Subsidies

  • Because of these policies, businesses supplied government officials with gifts and bribes to ensure help from government

    • Central Pacific Railroad budgeted $500,000 a year for bribes

Credit mobilier scandal
Credit Mobilier Scandal director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Congress gave the Union Pacific Railroad company land and loans to build the 1st transcontinental rail line to the west

  • Union Pacific hired an outside company (Credit Mobilier) to build the actual lines

  • CM charged UP far more then the value of work that was actually completed

  • This meant that tax money was flowing straight to shareholders of CM

    • Federal Gov Union Pacific Credit Mobilier Shareholders

  • To ensure that congress kept funding the railroad even after it went grossly over budget CM gave shares of CM stock to government officials who agreed to support more funding

Credit mobilier scandal1
Credit Mobilier Scandal director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Congress investigated CM 3 years after the completion of the transcontinental railroad

    • Found the more then 30 Gov. officials received stock from CM

      • Members of both political parties

      • Future Pres. James Garfield

      • VP Colfax

      • Cousins of Pres. Grant

Spoils system
Spoils System director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Elected officials appointed friends and supporters to government jobs, regardless of their qualifications, in exchange for help being elected

  • During Gilded Age government was full of unqualified and dishonest people put in place by Spoils System

  • Spoils System ensured that politicians were surrounded with Loyal people

Opposing political parties

Republicans director of New York’s Erie railroad

Industrialist, bankers, Eastern Farmers

Strongest in North and Mid-west

Weak/Non-existent in South

Wanted tight supply of money backed by gold

Tariffs on imported goods, to protect U.S. Businesses

Generous Pensions for Union Soldiers

Gov. Aide to Railroads

Blue Laws

Sabbath, Alcohol, Dress, Cigarettes, Prohibition, Secular Amusements


Less Privileged members of society

Northern Urban Immigrants

Laborers, Southern Planters, Western Farmers

Concerned with interests of ordinary People

Increased supply of money backed by silver

Lower Tariffs on imported goods

Increased Farm Prices

Less Gov. Aide to big business (Railroads)

Fewer Blue Laws

Opposing Political Parties

Assignments director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Quiz 8.1

  • Worksheet pg. 77

  • Read pgs. 297-303

Bellwork trivia

Bellwork director of New York’s Erie railroad

Page 303


Immigration director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Between 1865 and 1920 30 million immigrants entered the U.S.

    • Fleeing from failing crops and farms

    • Shortages of land

    • Rising taxes

    • Famine

    • Religious or political persecution

  • 1880’s Russia had a wave of pogroms against Jews

    • Czar limited places where Jews could live and work

    • America offered freedom and many decided to immigrate

  • Most immigrants traveled across the ocean in steerage

    • Large open area beneath a ships deck

Chinese excluded
Chinese Excluded director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Railroad companies recruited nearly 250,000 Chinese to work on Railroads

    • Worked for Company until debt for passage and upkeep had been paid

    • After debts were settled Chinese went to work in mining, farming, fishing, factory jobs, food preparation, laundering (dry cleaners)

    • Chinese were viewed as mentally and physically inferior

  • Labor unions were fighting to exclude Asian because they were willing to work for low wages

  • Others claimed Chinese were not worthy of being Americans

    • Tried to prove this with faulty scientific reasoning

Chinese exclusion act
Chinese Exclusion Act director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Passed in 1882 the Act prohibited entry in to the U.S. by Chinese laborers

    • Allowed those that had established U.S. residency to enter and leave as they wished

Assignments director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Workbook page 78

  • Read Pages 304-309


Page 309 director of New York’s Erie railroad

# 1-4


Rapid growth of cities
Rapid Growth of Cities director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Cities Adopt new building styles

    • Skyscrapers

    • Tenements

  • New Methods of transportation allowed for the development of suburbs

    • Horse drawn carriages on rail

      • Eventually electric trolleys on the same rails

    • Motorized methods of transportation

      • Elevated Trains 1868-New York

      • Cable Cars 1873-San Francisco

      • Electric trolleys 1888-Richmond

      • Subway Trains 1897-Boston

      • Automobiles-invented in 1890’s

        • Mass production started around 1910

Rapid growth of cities1
Rapid Growth of Cities director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Cities grow upward as well as outward

    • Before Civil War no building stood more then 5 stories high

      • Technologies such as Bessemer steel, elevators emerged to support the need to build higher

Urban living conditions
Urban Living Conditions director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Tenement and apartment buildings replace houses in the cities

    • Tenement-low cost apartment building designed to house as many people as possible

  • A group of dirty or rundown tenements would quickly turn the area into a slum

Poor urban living conditions
Poor Urban Living Conditions director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Conditions in the slums

    • Poverty, overcrowding, and neglect of buildings

    • Trees and Grass slowly disappeared

    • Hundreds of people were crammed into spaces designed for a few families

    • Soot from coal burning boilers and steam engines polluted the air, making it dark and foul

    • Open Sewers attracted rats and disease-spreading vermin

Life in the slums
Life in the Slums director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Fires were constant threat

    • With buildings so close, even a small fire could quickly consume a neighborhood or city

      • Great Chicago Fire of 1871

        • More than 18,000 buildings

        • More then 100,000 people left homeless

        • $200 Million in damages

  • Contagious Disease thrived and spread quickly in overcrowded slums

    • Yellow Fever, Cholera, Malaria, Tuberculosis, diphtheria, and typhoid

    • Disease spread quickly in close, warm buildings

    • Believed that 80% of Child Deaths were due to these preventable disease

Dumbbell tenement
Dumbbell Tenement director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Architects designed new tenements to meet the demand of new laws requiring an outside window in every room

    • Narrow middles gave each apartment a light and air shafts to each side of building

      • Picture on page 307

    • Trash collected at the bottom of the shafts, very little light or fresh air made its way into the apartments

    • Contaminated water pipes that were shared between the entire building continued to spread disease

Bellwork trivia

Bellwork trivia1

Page 315 director of New York’s Erie railroad


January 15, 1992

Tim Berners-Lee (who invented the world wide web) released the first web browser software.

Bellwork Trivia

Result of city growth
Result of City Growth director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Rapidly growing cities created a need for Government to improve city services

    • Police protections

    • Fire Protection

    • Transportation

    • Sewage disposal

    • Electric service

    • Water Service

    • Health Care

  • In order to improve services, officials raised taxes

Rise of political bosses
Rise of Political Bosses director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Political Machines

    • An unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power

    • Machines were usually lead by a single person, or boss

    • Political Bosses sometimes held office, but mostly handpicked others to run and helped them get elected

    • Handed out favors, services, or jobs in exchange for votes

    • Individuals in the city that wanted a favor from the city would have to first pay the boss some money

      • This is called a graft, it was a major source of income for Machines

Boss tweed and tammany hall
Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • The most notorious boss was William Marcy Tweed who controlled Tammany Hall, the club that controlled New York City’s Democratic Party

  • Took over Treasury of NYC, added fake fees onto construction and supply contracts, stole many millions of dollars

  • Brought down by Thomas Nast, a political cartoonist who exposed Tweed’s methods to the public

  • Tweed was convicted and later died in prison

Ideas of reform
Ideas of Reform director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Reform movements aimed at controlling Immigration and Behavior/morality

    • Settlement Houses

      • Reformers settled into a house in the midst of a poor neighborhood

        • Served as a community center and provided social services

        • Hull House in Chicago

    • Nativism

      • Favoring Native Born American

        • Example: Chinese Exclusion Act

    • Purity Crusaders

      • Looked to control and end vices

        • Drugs, gambling, alcohol, prostitution, etc.

Bellwork trivia

  • Temperance Movement director of New York’s Erie railroad

    • An organized attempt to achieve prohibition

      • Elimination of Alcohol Consumption

  • Social Gospel Movement

    • Instead of blaming Immigrants for drinking, gambling and other vices churches tried to treat the problem that drove people to these activities

    • While doing so they sought to apply the teachings of Jesus to Society

  • Sociology

    • Study of Societies

Assignment director of New York’s Erie railroad

  • Chapter 8 Review

    • Page 316-317

      • # 1-22, 31, 32