Tackling Underemployment Pragyat Gautam.
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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics
*2013q3: Year ended June 30, 2013
Over qualification for a job is an important component of underemployment. Over qualification can be a source of personal frustration and dissatisfaction. Johnson and Johnson’s (1996) study of the postal workers’ union in the United States found that persons who perceived themselves to be overqualified for their jobs suffered greater psychological distress compared to those who did not share these perceptions.
An initial disadvantage among immigrants when they first enter the labor market is the absence of location-specific capital; immigrants have fewer social networks, less in- formation about local markets, fewer resources, and in many instances fewer market-specific skills needed for a job in the United States.
The problem of people working in low-wage jobs with no benefits has become more prevalent in the U.S. economy, as industrial restructuring, corporate downsizing, and outsourcing have given rise to a sizeable “contingent” workforce. That contingent workers and temps often lack benefits is only one reason why many of them could be counted as underemployed.
De Jong, Gordon F. and Anna B. Madamba. 2001. "A Double Disadvantage? Minority Group, Immigrant Status, and Underemployment in the United States." Social Science Quarterly (Wiley-Blackwell) 82(1):117.
George, Usha, Ferzana Chaze, Esme Fuller-Thomson and Sarah Brennenstuhl. 2012. "Underemployment and Life Satisfaction: A Study of Internationally Trained Engineers in Canada." Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies 10(4):407-425.
Jensen, Leif and Tim Slack. 2003. "Underemployment in America: Measurement and Evidence." American Journal of Community Psychology 32(1):21-31.