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Session 11 Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction. Gavin Smith, PhD University of North Carolina. Learning Objectives. 10.1 Describe disaster recovery, including the issues faced following a major and catastrophic disaster 10.2 Discuss stakeholders and their roles in recovery

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session 11 disaster recovery and reconstruction

Session 11Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction

Gavin Smith, PhD

University of North Carolina

Session 11: Catastrophe Readiness and Response Course

learning objectives
Learning Objectives

10.1 Describe disaster recovery, including the issues faced following a major and catastrophic disaster

10.2 Discuss stakeholders and their roles in recovery

10.3 Describe and analyze the United States Disaster Recovery Assistance Framework

Session 11: Catastrophe Readiness and Response Course

defining disaster recovery
Defining Disaster Recovery
  • Disaster recovery: “The differential process of restoring, rebuilding and reshaping the physical, social, economic and natural environment through pre-event planning and post-event actions” (Smith and Wenger 2006)
  • Catastrophic disaster recovery

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disaster outcomes
Disaster Outcomes
  • Positive Outcomes:
    • Hazard Mitigation
    • Education
    • Post-Event “window of opportunity”
    • Increased investment
    • Decreased levels of social conflict

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disaster outcomes1
Disaster Outcomes
  • Negative Outcomes:
    • Degradation of the environment
    • Failure to assist socially vulnerable populations
    • Long-term or permanent closure of businesses
    • Reduced investment
    • Increased social conflict

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in class discussion
In-Class Discussion

Discuss the concept of a disaster as a “window of opportunity”

Who are the beneficiaries and losers following disaster?

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elements of recovery
Elements of Recovery
  • Physical Recovery
    • Reconstruction
  • Social Recovery
    • Emergent groups
  • Economic Recovery
    • Continuity of operations plan
  • Environmental Recovery

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in class discussion1
In-Class Discussion

How do catastrophes impact the physical recovery or reconstruction of impacted communities?

Issues to consider include:

Scope of the event

Duration of recovery

Intensity of the event

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in class discussion2
In-Class Discussion

In the case of sea-level rise, how should coastal communities - which are highly dependent on tourism, tax revenue from ocean-front properties and the harvesting of coastal marine life (which are dependent on the health of degraded wetlands) - address these and other identified economic recovery challenges?

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disaster recovery process
Disaster Recovery Process
  • The process emerges from the initial response to a disaster and transitions into initial short-term recovery efforts
  • Recovery involves more than reconstruction
  • Following a major or catastrophic disaster recovery can take more than a decade (in some locations, organizations and individuals will never return to their pre-disaster condition)
  • The transition from short-term to long-term recovery is often difficult and uncertain

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in class discussion3
In-Class Discussion

Should Hurricane Katrina be categorized as a catastrophic event? Why or why not?

Are there other measures of physical, economic, social and environmental impacts that should be considered? If so, what are they?

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disaster recovery process1
Disaster Recovery Process

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disaster recovery process2
Disaster Recovery Process
  • Emergency Period
  • Restoration Period
  • Reconstruction I
  • Reconstruction II

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in class discussion4
In-Class Discussion

Does this model adequately address the issues associated with a catastrophic event? If not, what factors are missing?

Missing elements

Other critiques

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10 2 discuss stakeholders and their roles in recovery
10.2 Discuss Stakeholders and their Roles in Recovery
  • Stakeholders:
    • Public Sector (federal, state and local governments)
    • Quasi-governmental and Non-governmental (regional planning organizations, professional associations, colleges and universities)
    • Nonprofit Relief Organizations (non-profits and foundations)
    • International Aid Organizations and Nations
    • Private Sector and For-Profit Organizations (businesses and corporations, financial and lending institutions, insurance, media)
    • Emergent Groups and Individuals

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public sector
Public Sector
  • Key Federal Agencies:
    • FEMA
    • Small Business Administration
    • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
    • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    • Department of Housing and Urban Development
    • The Military
    • Others
  • National Response Framework

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emergency support functions as defined by fema
Emergency Support Functions(as defined by FEMA)
  • ESF #1 Transportation
  • ESF #2 Communications
  • ESF #3 Public Works and Engineering
  • ESF #4 Firefighting
  • ESF #5 Emergency Management
  • ESF #6 Mass Care, Emergency Assistance, Housing and Human Services
  • ESF #7 Resource Support
  • ESF #8 Public Health and Medical Services
  • ESF #9 Search and Rescue
  • ESF #10 Oil and Hazardous Materials Response
  • ESF #11 Agriculture and Natural Resources
  • ESF #12 Energy
  • ESF #13 Public Safety and Security
  • ESF #14 Long-Term Community Recovery
  • ESF #15 External Affairs

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state agencies and organizations
State Agencies and Organizations
  • State Emergency Management Agency
  • Governor’s Office
  • State Legislature
  • Department of Natural Resources
  • Department of Commerce
  • State Budget Office
  • State Planning Office
  • Department of Public Health
  • Others

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state emergency management agency
State Emergency Management Agency

Maintained by each state

Responsibilities:

Oversee “comprehensive” emergency management program

Develop and implement training, education and outreach program

Coordination of state assets and agencies after a disaster

Liaison to FEMA pre- and post-event

Administrator of federal programs following disasters

Public Assistance

Hazard Mitigation Grant Program

Individual Assistance

Administration of state recovery programs (if they exist)

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governor s office
Governor’s Office

Emergency Powers designation

Committing state assets

State disaster declaration

Establish evacuation routes

Request federal assistance following disasters

Designating a State Coordinating Officer

Enter into mutual aid agreements

Public face of disaster

Seek additional funding through state legislature

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state legislature
State Legislature

Appropriate state funds for disaster assistance

Non-federal match

State programs

State “rainy day” fund

Establish post-disaster recovery commission

State budget – emergency management

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local government
Local Government

Government Actors:

City Manager

Financial Official

Public Works Director

Planning Director

Police Chief

Fire Chief

Building Official

Local Floodplain Administrator

Local Emergency Manager

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quasi governmental and nongovernmental organizations
Quasi-governmental and Nongovernmental Organizations

Regional planning organizations

Professional associations

Colleges and universities

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regional planning organizations
Regional Planning Organizations

Write and implement local grant programs

Local land-use planning and plan-writing

Collect and analyze data

Assume local governance tasks

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professional associations
Professional Associations

Critically analyze recovery activities / offer solutions

Provide expert opinion

Mobilize association members

Conduct post-disaster damage assessments

Provide pre- and post-disaster planning assistance

Advocate for changes in building standards, codes or other activities tied to their area of expertise

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professional associations involved in recovery include
Professional associations involved in recovery include:

Association of State Floodplain Managers

National Emergency Management Association

International Association of Emergency Managers

American Planning Association

American Institute of Architects

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colleges and universities
Colleges and Universities

Conduct hazards-related research

Teach growing cadre of students interested in hazards management

Provide post-event technical assistance

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non profit relief organizations
Non-profit Relief Organizations

Non-profits:

Food, shelter, clothing, medical assistance, counseling and crisis management

Repair and reconstruction of damaged housing

Advocate for the protection of natural systems

Capacity building

Technical experts

Foundations:

Provision of gap funding

Share information

Mobilize public opinion

Identify shortfalls in the recovery assistance system

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international aid organizations and nations
International Aid Organizations and Nations

Link international assistance with local needs

Identify appropriate diplomatic channels/organizations to funnel relief

Draw international attention to a major disaster or catastrophe

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private sector and for profit organizations
Private Sector and For-Profit Organizations

The Private Sector includes the following organizations:

Businesses and Corporations

Financial and Lending Institutions

Insurance

Media

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Session 11: Catastrophe Readiness and Response Course

business and corporations
Business and Corporations

Contractors and consultants:

Debris removal

Deployment of assets

Writing and administering of grants

Repairing and reconstruction following disaster

Local business aid

Corporate aid

Financial and lending aid

Insurance

Media

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emergent groups and individuals
Emergent Groups and Individuals

Emergent Groups:

Share information

Advocate for the equitable distribution of assistance

Assert the nature of local needs

Individuals

Share experiential lessons

Identify and articulate local needs

Grass-roots activism

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10 3 the disaster recovery assistance framework
10.3 The Disaster Recovery Assistance Framework

Members of the Disaster Assistance Network:

Public Sector

Quasi-governmental and Nongovernmental Organizations

Nonprofit Relief Organizations

International Aid Organizations and Nations

Private Sector and For-Profit Organizations

Emergent Groups and Individuals

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the disaster recovery assistance framework
The Disaster Recovery Assistance Framework

Types of Assistance:

Funding

Policy

Technical Assistance

Framework Characteristics:

Rules and understanding of local needs

Timing of disaster assistance

Horizontal and vertical integration

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rules and understanding of local needs
Rules and Understanding of Local Needs

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timing of disaster assistance
Timing of Disaster Assistance

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in class discussion5
In-Class Discussion

How does the adoption of hazard mitigation measures slow or speed the process of disaster recovery?

Issues to consider include:

The timeframe in which mitigation measures are implemented

The role of pre-disaster hazard mitigation planning

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horizontal and vertical integration
Horizontal and Vertical Integration

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disaster recovery planning
Disaster Recovery Planning

Benefits of recovery planning

Berke, Kartez and Wenger (1993)

Oliver-Smith (1990)

Olson, Olson and Gawronski (1998)

Findings largely qualitative

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recovery planning
Recovery Planning

Pre-disaster

Planning tools, including hazard mitigation

Post-disaster

Long-term recovery and reconstruction

Importance of planning process

Public participation

Policy dialogue

Facilitation

Negotiated rule-making

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the disaster recovery plan
The Disaster Recovery Plan

Evaluation of existing plans and policies

Assessment of legal authorities

Creation of local recovery committee

Implementation strategy

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the disaster recovery plan1
The Disaster Recovery Plan

Topical elements:

Damage and needs assessments

Post-disaster permitting

Building moratorium

Debris management

Restoration of public services

Repair of infrastructure

Critical facilities

Housing (emergency shelter, temporary, permanent)

Public health, social services

Business and economic recovery

Hazard mitigation

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reluctance to plan for recovery
Reluctance to Plan for Recovery

Negative outcomes:

Poor coordination (horizontal and vertical) among stakeholder groups

Increased length of time required to recover

Lower levels of public participation

Reduced understanding of local needs

Missed opportunities to incorporate hazard mitigation into recovery

Increased dependence on federal assistance following disasters

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national disaster recovery framework listening sessions
National Disaster Recovery Framework Listening Sessions

Individual and family empowerment

Leadership and local primacy

Preparation for recovery

Partnerships for inclusiveness

Communications

Unity of effort

Timeliness and flexibility

Resilience and sustainability

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national disaster recovery framework proposed organizational changes
National Disaster Recovery Framework – Proposed Organizational Changes

Federal Recovery Coordinators (FRC)

State Recovery Coordinators (SRC)

Recovery Support Functions (RSF)

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in class exercise
In-Class Exercise

Discuss the Model Recovery and Reconstruction Ordinance (Schwab, et. al. 1998) in the context of the Disaster Assistance Framework

Discuss the draft National Disaster Recovery Framework in the context of identified limitations in the current US disaster recovery assistance framework

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take home exercise
Take Home Exercise

Create an outline of a disaster recovery plan for your hometown or designated community

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in class discussions
In-Class Discussions

Discuss the factors that could stimulate a greater awareness of the importance of pre-event planning for post-disaster recovery

Discuss and critically analyze the Disaster Assistance Framework

Does the proposed National Disaster Recovery Framework address identified limitations?

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