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OECD Environmental Policy Committee. Accession Review of Israel 21.10.2009 Dr. Yossi Inbar - Director General Valerie Brachya – Consultant Ministry of Environmental Protection Accepts. Water Resource Management C(89)12, C(78)4, C(74)220. Sources

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OECD Environmental Policy Committee

Accession Review of Israel


Dr. Yossi Inbar - Director General

Valerie Brachya – Consultant

Ministry of Environmental Protection



WaterResource ManagementC(89)12, C(78)4, C(74)220


  • Surface and underground water resources owned and managed by national water authority
  • 95% sewage collected, 90% treated and 75% reused for agricultural irrigation. Upgraded for unrestricted agricultural use
  • Desalination of brackish and marine water


  • Water price reflects abstraction and marginal costs, with differentiated tariffs related to consumption levels and type of user
  • 2009 drought levy imposed on domestic users
  • Ministry of EP empowered to establish river or stream authorities for ecological improvement and pollution prevention
water pollution prevention c 74 221
WaterPollution PreventionC(74)221



Regulations imposed to reduce salinity, restrict heavy metals and set pH levels for industrial effluents & sewage sludge

Stricter regulations on 36 pollutants in effluents awaiting approval

Regulations to restrict approx 50 priority organic contaminants in preparation

Constraints on pollution sources

Interministerial guidelines to reduce pollution from farming

Legislation on pollution prevention from oil storage tanks and soil remediation in preparation

energy fuels and efficiency c 85 102 c 77 109 c 85 101 c 76 162 c 79 117
EnergyFuels and Efficiency C(85)102, C(77)109, C(85)101, C(76)162, C(79)117


Electricity production

Currently (2009) 65% coal, 32% natural gas (will increase to 40-50% from offshore fields, LNG); generating capacity 10,000 MW, expected to double by 2020 if BAU

3% energy demand saved through domestic solar water heating

10% renewables target by 2020 (Government issued tender for 250MW thermo-solar)

Electricity Authority sets prices, including incentive for renewables based on pollution prevented


Energy efficiency target 20% reduction by 2020 compared to BAU

Mandatory energy efficiency regulations on new appliances

Voluntary energy efficiency building standard (mandatory in future)

Government established research fund: $100million over 5 years to promote RE+EE

energy pollution prevention
EnergyPollution Prevention

Pollution controls

Business license - operational conditions on power stations

Clean Air Act - emission permits (2011)

Abatement of Nuisances Regulations – reductions of SO2, NOX and particulates in line with EU directive (6 years - need reserve capacity toenable retrofit)

Low sulfur coal, high stacks for dispersion, scrubbers on 2 units and will be fitted on others, electrostatic precipitators on stacks, monitoring networks

Integration of environment and energy

Integration through NBPB masterplan for power stations, including EIA

ippc c 90 164




Already implemented

Adopted 2006 to be applied to 150 installations through Business Licenses

Implementation in process in industrial hotspots: Ramat Hovav, Haifa Bay, in future - Ashdod

Separate permits required for marine discharge, hazardous materials, air emissions (2011)

BAT and monitoring required

Enforcement by Ministry of EP

EIA on major plants and industrial areas

Roadmap for full implementation of IPPC

2009: consultant

2010: preparation

2011: implementation by sectors

noise c 85 103 c 78 73
NoiseC(85)103, C(78)73


Transport noise

  • No manufacture of vehicles
  • Adopted EU vehicle noise standards
  • Aircraft require noise certificates
  • National masterplans include noise regulations around airports, along flight paths and along surface transportation,
  • Surface transportation (road and rail) standards adopted by government decision

Other noise sources

  • Regulations on products and their use
  • Abatement regulations:
    • noise in residential areas
    • construction noise
transport c 74 218 c 2004 80
TransportC(74)218, C(2004)80



NBPB national masterplan 35 supports urban development, reduction of sprawl and efficient public transport

National masterplan for integrated surface transport in preparation

Ministry of Transport allocated major investment to public transport, including interurban rail and electrification of rail (6.4 billion €)

Ministry of Transport revised project appraisal to improve consideration of noise, air pollution and landscape protection

EIA of transportation projects includes evaluation of alternatives

Pollution control

Traffic Ordinance - vehicle emission standards equivalent to EU

2009 green taxation imposed on vehicles and fuels according to level of emissions

2009 tender issued for scrapping old vehicles

tourism c 79 115



NBPB national masterplan for tourism

Planning constraints on building in attractive, sensitive areas - coasts, landscape value

Natural and cultural values protected by relevant statutory authorities

Strategy for sustainable tourism, including ecotourism, submitted by Ministry of Tourism

Greening tourism

Ministry of Tourism allocates grants for tourist use of historic buildings, stream reclamation

Promotion of green building/green management in tourism by Ministries of Tourism and EP

Hotels distribute information to visitors to encourage water conservation

coastal zone management c 76 161 c 92 114
Coastal Zone ManagementC(76)161, C(92)114



Coastal protection included in legislation on land use planning, land management, nature protection and protection of antiquities

NBPB directive for national masterplan 1970, approved 1983 included 100m setback, restraints on development, designation of protected areas

NBPB masterplan for ports included sand bypassing

Prevention of damage and pollution

2004 coastal law integrated coastal and marine management and added public access, liability for damage to coastal resources and enforcement

Marine pollution prevention strictly enforced in accordance with Barcelona Convention

biodiversity c 2004 81


Timeframe 2011

Regulatory control

Stringent controls through legislation on nature protection

National biodiversity strategic action plan to be submitted to government 2010

Planning authorities impose biodiversity conservation conditions on infrastructure plans

Economic instruments

Specific cases of compensation to farmers for losses and to encourage ecotourism

2009 new Landscape Fund in Lands Authority for change of land use

material flows and resource productivity c 2004 79 c 2008 40
Material Flows and Resource ProductivityC(2004)79, C(2008)40




Natural resources

Few natural resources, mineral or biomass

Phosphates, Dead Sea minerals, aggregates


Information on material flows and stocks not currently available

Industry willing to participate in indicators and resource accounting

Ministry of EP and CBS recognize need for data on tracking stocks and flows, aware of gaps, will participate in OECD activities

polluter pays principle c 72 128 c 74 223 c 89 881
Polluter Pays PrincipleC(72)128, C(74)223, C(89)881


No major barriers

Environment not a non tariff barrier

No subsidy on energy, no tax on coal

Increasing implementation

Polluter pays Law 2008 imposes fines

1993 Hazardous Substances Law – differentiated fee for permit based on risk

Fines on illegal marine discharge

Increased fines for emissions - Clean Air Act (2011)

economic instruments c 90 177
Economic InstrumentsC(90)177


Instruments for waste disposal

Landfill levy

Deposit refund on beverage containers

Levy of PET drink containers

EPR on manufacturers and importers of tyres

Green taxation

Differential taxation on fuels and vehicles in relation to emissions

Environmental funds

Levy on extraction to Quarry Reclamation Fund

Fee on ships to Marine Pollution Prevention Fund

Economic incentives

Premiums and feed-in tariffs for renewable energy

Promotion of green building

Instruments in process

Liability for contaminated land – legislation to be submitted by end 2010

Levies on permitted air emissions from 2011

Incorporation of environmental risks as financial risks by financial regulators

public environmental expenditure c 2006 84
Public Environmental ExpenditureC(2006)84




Ministerial budgets and work programmes - according to PMO guidelines for results accountability and available to public

Preparing measurable indicators (2011)

Targeted funds exist for Marine Pollution, Cleanliness, Animal Protection, Quarry Reclamation

Review of practice in relation to annex will be undertaken (2010/11)

greening public procurement c 2002 3
Greening public procurement C(2002)3




2008 amendment to mandatory tenders law - preference to purchase products accredited by international or Israeli authority or practice

Workplan to accredit at least 10 items a year, commonly purchased by Ministries

Environmental criteria are incorporated into government tenders, eg. desalination

Government purchasing preference to recycled, trade-in products and hybrid vehicles

environmental impact assessment c 79 116 c 74 216
Environmental Impact AssessmentC(79)116, C(74)216


Statutory planning requirement

EIA (including EIS document) required under planning legislation 1982, revised 2003

Includes project guidelines, consideration of alternatives, review

Required on public and private development

Database EIA available to public on Ministry of EP website, EIS open to public when plan deposited

EIA not necessarily required where planning permit not required or where decision taken prior to planning

environmental performance of government c 96 39
Environmental Performance of Government C(96)39


EIA required on public development

Ministerial Sustainable Development strategies

Public Companies annual report on environmental performance to their directorates

Government decision requiring reduction of paper, water and electricity in government expected 2010

NBPB acts as important coordinating mechanism

environmental information c 98 67 c 79 114 c 90 165
Environmental InformationC(98)67, C(79)114, C(90)165




Availability of Information

  • Available to public on Ministry of EP and CBS websites, including 15 metrics of sustainable development
  • No integrated database available on pressures, conditions, responses to show changes/monitor policy
  • Ministry of EP initiating programme to provide information infrastructure:
      • 2009: update 15 metrics
      • 2010: identify gaps, submit 1st SOE to government
      • 2011: environmental outlook, EPR to government

Access to Information

  • 2009 regulations under Freedom of Information Law specify 22 clauses for public access to environmental information
  • Financial regulators require environmental risk disclosure by public companies, banks, investments

Transfrontier PollutionC(78)77, C(77)28, C(74)224, C(76)55, C(81)32Declaration: Currently, Israel does not share a common frontier with any OECD member country



22 MEA’s signed and ratified, 7 awaiting ratification

CP to Barcelona Convention for Mediterranean and applies same to Eilat Bay

LBS discharge to marine area according to permits, tighter restrictions, levy by end 2010


18 bilateral agreements

Environment in Peace Accord with Jordan

Environment in Interim Agreement with PA

development cooperation c 89 2 c 86 26 c 85 104
Development CooperationC(89)2, C(86)26, C(85)104


Timeframe 2010

Assistance Given

Capacity building and training in agriculture, water, medical emergency, environment

Major infrastructure projects not funded

Training on sustainable development, marine pollution prevention, pest management


Will establish framework for environmental assessment according to the checklist (2010)

declarations c 85 11 c 79 121 c m 74 26 c min 2009 5 add1 c min 2009 5 add1 c 2006 94
Declarations C(85)11, C(79)121, C/M(74)26, C/MIN(2009)5/ADD1, C/MIN(2009)5/ADD1, C(2006)94


Environmental governance

1973 government decision established environmental protection service

EIA since 1982, revised 2003

1988 Ministry of EQ established (later EP)

Local environmental units established for implementation

Civil Society involvement expanded through representation on planning and other committees, and rights of objection

Green growth:

2006: government decision - water tech 21.8m €

2008: government decision - renewables 72.7m €

2009: government decision - waste 5.4m €

Proposed government decision to promote environmental technologies

Development cooperation

Through capacity building with emphasis on water conservation and combating desertification

multilateral environmental agreements
Multilateral Environmental Agreements

Marine and Coastal

Barcelona Convention for the Mediterranean



Fishing and conservation of living resources of high seas

Agreement on conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks

Nature protection

Convention for Biological Diversity

Conservation of migratory species of wild animals

International trade in endangered species

Wetlands important as waterfowl habitats

Protection of new varieties of plants



Climate change – Kyoto protocol

Combating desertification

Protection of world cultural and natural heritage


Israel’s commitment to

Climate Change

  • Israel is a signatory to Kyoto and regards itself as an active partner in global efforts
  • Limited alternatives to fossil fuels and relatively high rates of population and economic growth compared to most OECD countries
  • Government decision requires an interministerial committee to submit a National Mitigation Action Plan by mid 2010. Consultant (McKinsey) preparing carbon abatement cost curve for Israel for identifying cost efficient measures - based on accepted global methodologies
  • Increased natural gas, active encouragement of EE and RE will be significant measures
factors limiting emissions reduction
Factors limiting emissions reduction
  • Current policy prevent use of Nuclear Power
  • No option of Hydroelectric Power
  • Limited capacity for Wind Power
  • No current possibility of Carbon Capture and Storage
  • Limited area for Thermo-Solar (2 hectares for 1 installed MW)
government commitments to ee and re
Government commitments to EE and RE

10% RE by 2020

20% reduction in demand by EE by 2020

$100 million research fund

220 MW thermo solar + 50MW PV

israel s statement on climate change
Israel’s Statement on Climate Change

Active implementation of UNFCCC

Establishment of ambitious long-term comprehensive low emissions strategy

Energy management policy

Nationally appropriate GHG mitigation actions

Active participation in OECD discussions

2nd national communication by mid 2010 - non annex 1

Future national communications - annex 1 as appropriate

Participation in COP 15 in Copenhagen

Efforts made to join negotiating group