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ESADE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. ESADE Video-Conferencing: Effective Communication Strategies in Language Learning IATEFL 2001 Brighton Jason Firestone firestone@esade.edu

  2. ESADE What do you need to videoconference? • Hardware • A PC with video and sound cards • A monitor • A video capture camera • A microphone • Loudspeakers or headset • Video and audio codec*

  3. ESADE What do you need to videoconference? • Software • e.g. Microsoft NetMeeting • Transmission channel • Cable (copper wire: ISDN, POTS, Mbone, XDSL; fibre optic) • Satellite • Microwave

  4. ESADE Connecting people • One way video • Two way audio • Two way video and audio • Point-to-point • Multipoint

  5. ESADE What media can you use? • Video images • Audio • Text “chat” • Document sharing • Application sharing • Still images • Whiteboard

  6. ESADE Why videoconference? • Geographical factors • Cost effective delivery of same content • Students can take classes not offered at their school & 24/7 • Enables connection with external resources • Distance learning: establishes a virtual connection among participants • Add value: meet needs & expectations

  7. ESADE Critical success factors • Critical preparation • Site logistics • Interpersonal skills • Instructor control • Information dissemination • Training needs / requirements • Teaching skills / strategies

  8. ESADE Videoconference protocols (1) • Who is and where is the host / teacher? • Camera and lighting • The camera is your audience • Identify yourself • Mute! Mute! Mute! • Speech control • Direct questions to individuals • Allow for time delay

  9. ESADE Videoconference protocols (2) • Remember everyone sees the speaker, except the speaker • Keep the camera on you when you are speaking • Pause occasionally to allow for questions and comments • Clothes and makeup • Avoid too much body motion

  10. ESADE 5 Aspects of verbal communication 1. Syntax: Grammatical completion of a clause is an important cue 2. Intonation: Changes in pitch are associated with turn endings 3. Loudness: Drop in loudness occurs with turn endings 4. Drawl: Final syllable of a turn often lengthend 5. Stereotyped tags: “but ah”; “you know” tagged on to the end of turns

  11. ESADE 6 Aspects of CMC 1. The sender may make a 2nd move before receiving a response to a first 2. A recipient may not respond to an utterance 3. A message may interrupt a turn or move 4. Absence of opening and closing adjacency pairs 5. Naming addressees does not operate as a turn allocation technique

  12. ESADE Non-verbal communication • Cognitive cues • Turn-taking cues • Social and affective cues • Gesture • Proxemics • Body contact • Posture and body orientation • Facial expression • Gaze

  13. ESADE 3 Conditions 1. “Free-for-all”: no turn-taking restrictions applied 2. “Request and grant”: users signal their intent to the ‘current holder’ who can relinquish turn 3. “Request and capture”: anyone can interrupt a current ‘turn holder’ “Free-for-all” no conditions imposed: write / read messages, post simulataneously

  14. ESADE Guidelines for visual aids • The backdrop • The presenter / participants • The information presented • Screen aspect ratio • Use large or bold text • Use of colours • Distribute your slides in advance • Don't keep moving your slides around

  15. ESADE Tips for humanising teaching • Make a seating plan of the group • Learn student names at remote site • Use student names • Be yourself - same person as in FTF • Start with an informal roll call • Look at the camera - gain eye contact with the camera lens and with the students at remote location

  16. ESADE Variety in instructional activities • Brain storming • Breakout session • Case study • Debate • Demonstration • Group discussions • Group work sessions • Individual practice exercises • Guest speaker • Interview • Lecture • Panel discussion • Role playing • Question and answer • Video clips

  17. ESADE Student interaction • Initiate interaction asap • Pre-determine time for student interaction • Integrate on-air interaction with on-site activities • Prime participant for interaction • Motivate interaction • Clearly define topics or questions • Vary timing of interactive segments • Encourage student-to-student interaction

  18. ESADE Questioning strategies • Establish ground rules for questions • Use distant student’s name when asking question • Ask a student by name to survey his or her group • Pre-plan instructor questions • Pre-determine cognitive level of a question: recall, comprehension, application, or critical thinking

  19. ESADE Questioning strategies • Match the questions with class session objectives • Repeat the question slowly • Ask one question at a time

  20. ESADE The future... • Students will expect some kind of electronic classroom • Amount of time grossly underestimated • Training needs of teachers and students • Justification for costs • Free bandwidth / processing power • Psychological limitations / implications for learning • Further research

  21. ESADE Video-Conferencing: Effective Communication Strategies in Language Learning http://www.geocities.com/jason_firestone Jason Firestone firestone@esade.edu