Model of maltreatment
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Model of Maltreatment. Explain pattern of occurrences and non-occurrences of maltreatment Describe process by which maltreatment is transmitted from one person to another. Thesis.

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Model of maltreatment
Model of Maltreatment

  • Explain pattern of occurrences and non-occurrences of maltreatment

  • Describe process by which maltreatment is transmitted from one person to another


  • Insecure attachment is a critical concept in regard to both the origin of family maltreatment and the rehabilitation of families.

Attachment theory postulates
Attachment Theory Postulates

  • Attachment relationships important for individual functioning at all ages

  • Primary function of attachment relationships to promote protection and survival of young

  • Individual’s actual behavior determined by interplay of situational factors and previous experience with similar situations

Attachment theory postulates1
Attachment Theory Postulates

  • Patterns of attachment behavior affect direction of children’s developmental course

  • Effect of IWM (insecure) is to change behavior in way that makes current attachments more stressful and future attachments less likely to be secure

  • Attachment problems defined in terms of how successful relationship is in providing sufficient security such that person freed to attend to others aspects of lives

Internal working models
Internal Working Models

  • Abusing Mother:

  • model of others tied to issues of conflict, control and rejection

  • self-perception involves coercion and victimization

  • accompanying affect: anger

Internal working models1
Internal Working Models

  • Neglecting Mother

  • model of others center around concept of hopelessness

  • self-perception: ineffective

  • accompanying affect: emptiness and depression

Internal working models2
Internal Working Models

  • Adequate Mothers

  • model of others centers around ideas of competence and reciprocity

  • self-perception: capable of getting support and providing support to others

  • accompanying affect: satisfaction

Hypothesis 1
Hypothesis 1

  • Individuals in maltreating families expected to form insecure attachments with family members

  • child to parent

  • parent to own parents, partners, children

  • distorted internal representational models underlie insecure attachments

Hypothesis 11
Hypothesis 1

  • Abuse: abused children form insecure attachments, particularly the anxious/avoidant pattern

  • Abusing mothers are more harsh, interfering, controlling and negative toward children

  • Abusing mother-partner relationships more non-egalitarian

Hypothesis 12
Hypothesis 1

  • Neglect: children form insecure attachments, particularly anxious/avoidant pattern

  • Children are passive or overly compliant

  • Neglecting parents have problem with autonomy from family of origin

Hypothesis 2 internal conflict
Hypothesis 2: Internal Conflict

  • It is hypothesized that insecure attachments will be associated with conflicting impulses within the individual that might lead to behavior otherwise considered paradoxical.

Hypothesis 2
Hypothesis 2

  • Abused children defend and protect the maltreating parent

  • Engage in compulsive caregiving

  • Abusive mothers interpret child anger as rejection; don’t want anyone else to nurture child; chooses “unhealthy” partners

Hypothesis 21
Hypothesis 2

  • Neglected child needs but rarely seeks comfort and not comforted when receives comfort and support

  • Neglecting adults withdraw from relationships; deny feelings of loneliness/anger

Hypothesis 3 coping with parents
Hypothesis 3: Coping with Parents

  • Different types of maltreatment will be associated with different organizations of child behavior relevant to the children’s interaction with a parent.

Hypothesis 3
Hypothesis 3

  • Abused infants more difficult than nonabused infants in interaction with mothers

  • Not temperament

  • When older, are passive, vigilant, fearful and compliant or

  • Are resistant and negative

Hypothesis 31
Hypothesis 3

  • Neglected children intensify behavior to get response or give up and withdraw

Hypothesis 4 coping with the environment
Hypothesis 4: Coping with the Environment

  • Styles of interpersonal behavior will be related to the effectiveness of the children’s exploration of their environment.

Hypothesis 4
Hypothesis 4

  • Abused children have lower DQs than nonabused;

  • Compliant abused higher than normal DQs; passive/withdrawn abused very low DQs

  • Neglected children are helpless and unable to explore effectively

Hypothesis 5 niche picking
Hypothesis 5: Niche Picking

  • Behavior patterns of family members and attachment relationships would be expected to affect other aspects of their social ecology, such as social networks, employment, and, for the children, school experiences.

Hypothesis 5
Hypothesis 5

  • Abused children are aggressive with peers

  • Abused adolescent boys-delinquency; girls-promiscuity

  • Abusing mothers have unstable social relationships and unstable work histories

Hypothesis 51
Hypothesis 5

  • Neglected children either withdraw from peers or have disorganized, active and aggressive interactions

  • Neglectful mothers are socially isolated

Hypothesis 6 adaptation
Hypothesis 6: Adaptation

  • Children’s patterns of behavior would be predicted to be adaptive in the immediate sense of promoting immediate survival while being maladaptive in the long run in the sense of personal mental health.

Hypothesis 6
Hypothesis 6

  • Abused children who use compulsive/ compliant strategy: develop excessive social vigilance; develop superficial compliance; and inhibit anger

  • Are seen by others as manipulative

  • Sees self as worthy of love only when compliant; sees others as powerful and hostile

Hypothesis 61
Hypothesis 6

  • Abused children who remain overtly angry and resistant: risk continued abuse and consequences of own pervasive anger

  • View of others is negative; view of self includes justifications of own angry behavior

  • Adults who were abused but don’t abuse are more open about their anger

Hypothesis 62
Hypothesis 6

  • Neglected children: those who do explore face danger because no one watching out for them

  • Some neglected (extreme passivity/depression) never explore or learn strategies to engage parents