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Second AIACC Regional Workshop for Latin America and the Caribbean 24-27 August, 2004 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccc.int. Outline. Milestones of the Convention Process Status of submission of National Communications

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Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct


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    1. Second AIACC Regional Workshop for Latin America and the Caribbean24-27 August, 2004 Buenos Aires, Argentina Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccc.int

    2. Outline • Milestones of the Convention Process • Status of submission of National Communications • New Guidelines – inclusion of adaptation issues in national communications/User-Manual prepared by the UNFCCC secretariat • Funding for adaptation • Special Climate Change Fund • LDC Fund • Adaptation Fund • GEF special window for pilot adaptation measures • Multilateral/Bilateral assistance • Relevance of AIACC to second NCs

    3. Key steps in the development of the Convention • 1992 - Adoption of the UNFCCC, a framework for action aimed at stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases in order to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the climate system • 1994 - Entry into force of the UNFCCC • 1995 - “Berlin Mandate” is adopted, launching a new round of negotiations on a “protocol or other legal instrument”. • 1997- Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is adopted • 1998 “Buenos Aires Plan of Action” is adopted, setting out a programme of work on the Kyoto Protocol’s details and the implementation of the Convention • 2002 - “Delhi Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development” is adopted reaffirming development and poverty eradication as overriding priorities in developing countries, and recognizing Parties’ common but differentiated responsibilities and national development priorities and circumstances in the implementation of UNFCCC commitments.

    4. Commitments under the UNFCCC • All Parties, taking into account their common but differentiated (CBD) responsibilities and national circumstances should: • Prepare Inventories of GHG to be submitted to the COP • Prepare and implement mitigation and adaptation measures • Promote and cooperate on technology transfer matters • Promote sustainable development • Cooperate in preparing for adaptation and integrated planning

    5. Commitments under the UNFCCC (f) Undertake Impact assessment (g) Promote and cooperate on research and systematic observation (h) Exchange scientific, technological, technical, socio-economic and legal information (i) Promote and cooperate in education, training and public awareness (j) Communicate to the COP information on above elements in accordance with Article 12.1 of the Convention (national communications)

    6. AFRICA     *  * *  *     * * * * *   *  * *  * *    * *       * * * * *  *   *  * *  *   *  * * *   * * • Legend: • Parties that have already submitted their initial national communication UnderlinedParties that have yet to submit their initial national communication * Least developed countries       *   Total NCs submitted: 41 out of 52

    7. PACIFIC ISLANDS    *   *   *  * • Legend: • Parties that have already submitted their initial national communication UnderlinedParties that have yet to submit their initial national communication * Least developed countries   

    8. OTHERS  REP. OF MOLDOVA SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA SAN MARINO THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA   GEORGIA ARMENIA  AZERBAIJAN   ALBANIA MALTA  • Legend: • Parties that have already submitted their initial national communication UnderlinedParties that have yet to submit their initial national communication Total NCs sumitted: 7 out of 10

    9. SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA GEORGIA THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ALBANIA AZERBAIJAN ARMENIA MOROCCO JORDAN IRAN ALGERIA BAHAMAS EGYPT  ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA CUBA MAURITANIA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC BELIZE BARBADOS BURKINA FASO SUDAN ST. LUCIA SENEGAL EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO BENIN COSTA RICA PANAMA GHANA NIGERIA CENTRAL AFRICAN REP. CÔTE D’IVOIRE KENYA CONGO BURUNDI UNITED REP. OF TANZANIA SEYCHELLES PERU MALAWI BOLIVIA ZIMBABWE MADAGASCAR BOTSWANA PARAGUAY • Legend: • Parties that have already submitted their second national communication SWAZILAND SOUTH AFRICA CHILE  ARGENTINA Highlighted - Parties that have started the process of preparation of second national communication

    10. KAZAKHSTAN MONGOLIA UZBEKISTAN KYRGYZSTAN TAJIKISTAN  THAILAND PHILIPPINES CAMBODIA MARSHALL ISLANDS MALAYSIA KIRIBATI NAURU TUVALU SAMOA VANUATU NIUE COOK ISLANDS

    11. initial national communication (116) second national communication (3) reported that they have started the process of preparation of second national communication * projection only Submission of national communications, by year 77 80 ??* 70 60 50 Number of national communication 40 27 27 30 20 15 20 12 5 6 10 4 1 1 1 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Year of submission As of 20 August 2004

    12. Guidelines for inclusion of adaptation issues in national communications (COP Decision 17/CP.8) • PART IV – GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF STEPS TAKEN OR ENVISAGED TO IMPLEMENT THE CONVENTION • Non-Annex I Parties SHALL provide information on “programmes containing measures to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change.” • NAI Parties “SHOULD provide information on their vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change, and on adaptation measures…” • NAI Parties MAY use appropriate methodologies they consider better able to reflect their national situation. • Non-Annex I Parties ARE ENCOURAGED to use appropriate methodologies for the evaluation of adaptation strategies and measures

    13. Guidelines for inclusion of adaptation…..(cont.)Reporting Scope of V&A Assessment (a) Non-Annex I Parties are encouraged to provide information on the scope of their vulnerability and adaptation assessment, including identification of vulnerable areas that are most critical • Participation of stakeholders • Sectors identified and studied • Methods/approaches used, spatial/geographical boundaries and time horizons • Description of exposure units – agriculture, forests, water, health, ecosystems, human settlements, infrastructure, industry, energy, etc

    14. Guidelines for inclusion of adaptation…. (cont.)Reporting Description of approaches, methods and tools (b) Non-Annex I Parties are encouraged to include a description of approaches, methodologies and tools used, including scenarios for the assessment of impacts of, and vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, as well as any uncertainties inherent in these methodologies • General approach, framework and specific methodologies for analysis - e.g. IPCC guidelines, MAGICC-SCENGEN, PRECIS, downscaling, etc. • Environmental and socio-economic scenarios – i.e., climate is not the only factor • Population characteristics and resources, food, housing, arable land and other development trajectories

    15. Guidelines for inclusion of adaptation… (cont.)Reporting Key findings and integrating effects (c)Non-Annex I Parties are encouraged to provide information on their vulnerability to the impacts of, and their adaptation to, climate change in key vulnerable areas. Information should include key findings, and direct and indirect effects arising from climate change, allowing for an integrated analysis of the country’s vulnerability to climate change • Describe and quantify effects of climate change in key vulnerable areas/sectors • Indirect and combined effects and socio-economic changes (integrated effects) • Broad implications for the country as a whole • Sectoral linkages and associated effects • Emphasize and qualify the effects of climate change and their interactions with non-climatic changes

    16. Guidelines for inclusion of adaptation… (cont.)Reporting Adaptation strategies and measures (d)Non-Annex I Parties are encouraged to provide information on and, to the extent possible, evaluation of, strategies and measures for adapting to climate change, in key areas including those which are of the highest priority • Possibilities for responding to climate change effects and their interactions- no-regret options and other policies and development priorities (planning, economic development, land-use, etc) • Specific adaptations to effects identified in the study • Evaluation/prioritization (costs, practicability, environmental and cultural appropriateness) • General policies with implications for adaptation • Implementation of adaptation measures, pilot and/or demonstration adaptation projects. • Needs for capacity building and institutional strengthening, public awareness, education, and information

    17. Guidelines for inclusion of adaptation…. (cont.)Reporting Frameworks for adaptation (e)Where relevant, Parties may report on the use of policy frameworks, such as national adaptation programmes, plans and policies for developing and implementing adaptation strategies and measures. • Frameworks such as adaptation policy framework and national adaptation programmes of action can assist in the identification of options, strategies and measures - e.g. design specific adaptation projects and mainstreaming adaptation into sustainable development • Priority adaptation needs (most urgent) • Barriers to and opportunities for adaptation (legal, institutional, financial, technological) • Specific gaps and limitations – socio-economic and baseline data, climate and sea-level change scenarios, direct and indirect effects and their interactions • Appropriate adaptive options and capacity building needs

    18. Ejemplo de una matriz para presentar los impactos y las opciones de vulnerabilidad y adaptación

    19. Ejemplo de una matriz para presentar los impactos y las opciones de vulnerabilidad y adaptación

    20. User-Manual Reference material and web links • Methods and tools for vulnerability and adaptation assessments • IPCC Technical Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations (Carter, T.R., M.L. Parry, H. Harasawa, S. Nishioka 1994) • The UNEP Handbook on Methods for Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies (Feenstra, J.F., I. Burton, J.B. Smith, R.S.J. Tol, 1998) (http://130.37.129.100/IVM/research/climatechange/Handbook.htm) • Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments: An International Handbook on (Benioff, R., S. Guill, J. Lee, 1996) (http://www.neutrino.co.jp/abi_enst/0-7923-4140-6.PDF) • An Adaptation Policy Framework: Capacity Building for Stage II Adaptation (UNDP-GEF, 2000) (http://www.undp.org/cc/apf.htm) • PRECIS (http://www.metoffice.com/research/hadleycentre/models/PRECIS.html) • Toolkit for Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment (T. Downing) (http://www.aiaccproject.org/resources/ele_lib_docs/Toolkit_VAA.pdf) • Integrated modelling system for climate change impact and adaptation assessment (IGCI) (http://www.waikato.ac.nz/igci/modelling/modelling1.html) • Disaster Vulnerability Assessment, Tools Website (http://www.unisdr.org/) • Guidelines for the preparation of national adaptation programmes of action (http://unfccc.int/text/program/sd/ldc/documents/13a04p7.pdf) • Annotated guidelines for the preparation of national adaptation programmes of action (http://unfccc.int/text/program/sd/ldc/documents/annguide.pdf) • Compedium on Methods and Tools to Evaluate Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change (2004) (http://unfccc.int/program/mis/meth/compendium.pdf)

    21. User-Manual Reference material and web links • Baseline climatologies and climate change scenarios • High-resolution Climate Grids Prepared by the Climatic Research Unit and the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia (http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/hrg.htm) • Baseline Climate Datasets and Outputs of General Circulation Models (GCMs) Provided by the IPCC Data Distribution Centre (http://ipcc-ddc.cru.uea.ac.uk) • Guidelines on the Use of Scenario Data for Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment (Carter, T.R., Parry, M. L., Harasawa, H., Nishioka, S. 1999) (http://www.aiaccproject.org/resources/ele_lib_docs/TGCIAguidance_99.pdf) • MAGICC/SCENGEN (http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/cas/ACACIA/publications/magicc.html) • MAGICC/SCENGEN Workbook (M. Hulme et al., 2000) (http://www.aiaccproject.org/resources/ele_lib_docs/magicc_scengen_workbook.pdf) • Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM): A Decision Support Tool for Assessing Regiónal Climate Change Impacts (R. Wilby et al., 2001) (http://www.aiaccproject.org/resources/ele_lib_docs/SDSM_manual.pdf) • The IPCC Data Distribution Centre (http://ipcc-ddc.cru.uea.ac.uk/ipcc_ddc.html) • Socio-Economic Scenarios • Guidance Materials on Spataially Distributed Socio-economic Projections of Population and GDP per Unit Area (S.Gaffin,G. Yerman, A. Mellinger. CIESIN, 2002) (http://www.aiaccproject. Org/resources/ele-libdocs/GM/Gridded.pdf)

    22. Funds for adaptation (Marrakesh Accord) • Special Climate Change Fund Voluntary, Convention fund • LDC Fund Voluntary, Convention fund • Adaptation Fund 2% share of CDM proceeds, Kyoto fund, will fund ‘concrete’ measures

    23. Adaptation, in accordance with decision 5/CP.7 para. 8 Starting to implement adaptation activities Monitoring of diseases, vectors, forecasting Capacity building for planning, preparedness, management of disasters Strengthening of regional centers for rapid response to extreme weather events Technology Transfer, in accordance with decision 4/CP.7 Energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management Economic diversification in fossil-fuel dependent economies. Special Climate Change Fund Decision 7/CP.7 paragraph 2:

    24. Special Climate Change Fund Decision 5/CP.9, para. 1: • Adaptation, top priority for funding • technology transfer, also essential • activities should be • country-driven, cost-effective • integrated into national sustainable- development and poverty-reduction strategies • complementary to those funded by the LDC Fund and the CC focal area of the GEF Trust Fund • SCCF to serve as a catalyst to leverage additional resources

    25. GEF’s Support for Pilot Adaptation Measures • COP 7 requested GEF to provide support for establishing pilot or demonstration projects to show how adaptation planning can be translated into projects, and integrated into national policies and SD planning • The Delhi Declaration (COP 8) reflected growing Convention support for efforts to identify and avoid the adverse impacts of CC • In response, GEF has included a new strategic priority, “Piloting an Operational Approach to Adaptation,” (SPA) in- its Business Plan - 2005-2007 ($50 million) • COP 9 requested GEF to operationalize ASAP. • GEF Council approved the operational guidelines (May 2004) • The SPA is operational since 1 July 2004

    26. Funding and technical support for Adaptation Adaptation Projects SGP Adaptation Fund Special Climate Change Fund LDC Fund GEF Trust Fund Capacity Building Existing Operational Programs in all Focal Areas (incremental cost) Climate Change Focal Area Enabling Activity Source - GEF

    27. Yellow = Ongoing

    28. Yellow = Ongoing

    29. Relevance of AIACC to the second national communication process • To provide further understanding of the impacts of climate change • To introduce new approaches/methods/tools • To enhance the linkages between scientists and policy makers • To highlight the vulnerabilities of developing countries • To analyze the best options for adaptation • To build capacity