World War I -- America on the Homefront: "The Poster War"
1917 – Selective Service Act Authorized a draft of young men into military service By end of 1918 – 24,000,000 men registered for the draft. 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). African-Americans - 400,000 served in segregated units.
2. Expansion of the Federal Government
Managing the Economy • War Industries Board – • Bernard Baruch • Oversaw entire war effort – in charge of the many gov’t administrations that regulated different parts of the economy • Controlled prices, production, and materials • Food Administration – • Herbert Hoover • Regulated food consumption, agricultural output, reduce waste • Fuel Administration – • Gasless days, daylight savings time
Managing the Economy (cont’d) • National War Labor Board – • W.H.Taft & Frank P. Walsh • Mediated labor disputes to prevent work stoppages • War Trade Board – • Licensed foreign trade and punished those suspected of trading w/ the enemy • Why would both of these things be important to the war effort?
Financing the War • Increased Taxes • Liberty Bonds – • Bonds purchased could be redeemed later for the money paid plus interest • Related to Propaganda effort
Committee of Public Information (George Creel) • Purposes – • Unite public behind war effort • Attract men to enlist in army • Influence citizens to actively support war effort (buy bonds, conserve, etc) and put pressure on others to refrain from anything considered anti-war
Attacks on Civil Liberties
Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans • Espionage Act– 1917 • Forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military. • Ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail. • Fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.
Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 2.Sedition Act– 1918- it was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive languageabout this form of US Govt., the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.
New Social/Economic Opportunities
Women Used In Recruitment 18 Hello, Big Boy!
Opportunities for African-Americans in WW1 • War industries work • “Great Migration.” 1916 – 1919 NORTH • Enlistment in segregated units.
3. New American Immigrants