Words to Know! • Artificial Political Borders • European Partitioning • Berlin Conference • Nigeria • Kenya • South Africa • Federal Republic
Graphic Organizer Colonialism
What is Colonialism? Colonialism is generally defined as the occupation and control of one nation by another. Do you know of any countries around the world, either in or outside of Africa, which have been colonized at some point in their history? Over the last few hundred years, various European nations have colonized many areas of the world. These European colonies were in North and South America, Africa, Asia, Australia, and various smaller islands around the world. European nations colonized Africa from the late 19th century until the middle to later 20th century.
Colonial Conquest in Africa The 19th century in Europe was a time of industrialization. Factories in Europe required raw materials to be manufactured into marketable products. As a result, Europeans sought both a source of raw materials, as well as, a market for manufactured goods in Africa. This economic motivation played a large role in the colonization of Africa. The Industrial Revolution’s need for Raw materials.
Nationalism Politics in Europe also led to the colonization of Africa. Nationalism-a strong sense of identification with and pride in one's nation-resulted in competition between European nations. This competition often resulted in wars between nations. One of the causes of the Scramble for Africa, (1885-1910) which resulted in the colonization of all of Africa in just twenty-five years, was the competition between European nations to control as much of Africa as possible to gain economic and political power. No major nation wanted to be without colonies. The competition was particularly strong between Britain, France, and Germany, the strongest European nation-states in the late 19th century.
Nationalism-resulted in competition between European nations Graphic Organizer Industrial Revolution- Europeans sought both a source of raw materials, as well as, a market for manufactured goods in Africa. Colonialism
Arguments for Colonization • In addition, ideologies of racial hierarchy were prevalent in Europe in the 19th century. Many Europeans viewed themselves as the most advanced civilization in the world, and some saw it as their mission to "enlighten" and "civilize" people in the rest of the world. Ethnocentrism.
Religion and Colonialism • The colonization of Africa coincided with the expansion of Christian missionary activity in Africa. Parts of Africa, such as Ethiopia and Egypt, were home to Christians right from the beginning of Christianity as a region. However, Christianity was introduced to the rest of Africa only in the modern era.
Graphic Organizer Nationalism Industrial Revolution Colonialism Religion- colonized Africa to spread Christianity.
A few Africans welcomed the Europeans • European nations were able to make certain areas of Africa into their colonies in two main ways. Some African leaders were willing to sign treaties with Europeans for various reasons. In some cases, they saw it to their benefit to gain European allies. Secondly, military force was used in some cases when there was a large amount of resistance to colonial rule.
Answer this on the back of your organizer (independently). • Why would some African tribes welcome European colonization? • Why would other African tribes put up a fight against European colonization however end up conquered and destroyed so quickly?
Colonialism Brings New Borders for Africa • It is important to notice how borders have shifted as a result of colonialism. The borders of African countries today were imposed from the outside by European nations. Often the people who drew these borders paid no attention to ethno linguistic groups or existing political organization at the time of colonialization. Sometimes they grouped together people who had never been united under the same government before. Sometimes they divided existing systems of government at the time of colonial conquest.
Answer this on the back of your organizer (independently). • What factors would you consider if you were a European drawing colonial borders in Africa?
Berlin Conference • The Berlin Conference was held from November 1884 to February 1885. Many major European countries took part in the division of Africa, more commonly known as the “Scramble for Africa”, including Belgian, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. • The Europeans came into Africa with good intentions but they did not uphold them. The African people had no say in decisions made.
Artificial Political Borders • “The consequences of the European partitioning of the continent of Africa were devastating, as the newly drawn borders failed to correspond to older demarcations of ethnicity, language, culture, and commerce” (288). • These horrible borders showed the European ignorance for the individual African tribe’s original territories. They did not allow the indigenous people of Africa to have a chance to survive. • Read the statements above, work with your partner (person sitting next to you) to write a definition for Artificial Political Borders.
Graphic Organizer Nationalism Artificial Political Borders- write your definition of artificial political borders here. Industrial Revolution Colonialism Religion Berlin Conference- “Scramble for Africa”,
Artificial Political Borders • The boundaries made during the Berlin Conference effect Africa to this day. The Niger River basin area is filled with unrest, civil war, and violence. So is the Congo. An Artificial Political Border is one created by an outside entity without regard to the ethnicity or religious groups in the area.
The Fight for Independence • All African countries, with the exception of Ethiopia and Liberia, started out as colonies. And just as with the American War for Independence, some African colonies, such as Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe, also gained their independence only after waging war against their colonial masters. While the majority of African countries gained independence without having to resort to a revolution, in every African country independence was won only after the people organized themselves in a struggle against colonialism.
Civil Wars in Post-Colonial Africa • These wars brought additional hardships on the population including the destruction of infrastructure, crops, education, healthcare, and increase the spread of disease and famine. • The reasons for political violence,authoritarian governments, or corruption in some African countries, are complex and not a reflection of the inability of Africans to govern themselves.
Graphic Organizer Nationalism Artificial Political Borders Industrial Revolution Colonialism Civil Wars- political violence,authoritarian governments, or corruption in some African countries Religion Berlin Conference Struggle for Independence- independence was won only after the people organized themselves
What is a Civil War? • Why did Civil Wars break out in Africa? • Colonial states were weak and lacked capacity to meet citizen needs. • Colonial states were not democratic and had little respect for human rights. • ·Ethnic conflict is a major political problem in many African countries.
·What do you need for a stable government in Africa? National unity is essential for the success of any country. For this goal to be met, citizens have to develop a stronger loyalty and identity to the nation than they do to an ethnic group. Sovereignty- a fancy term for authority and power to insure security. Basic human services: education, health-care, housing and adequate employment opportunities.
Interactive Notebook Question What type of policies, programs, and institutions should have been developed in Africa to address the needs of the people?
Which type governments did the new countries choose? • At their independence, each Africa country had a constitution that, like the U.S. Constitution, established the "rules and regulations" of government. These constitutions often reflected the systems of government of the colonial power. Remember that Britain and France had the most colonies in Africa. • Most were multi-party democracies. In this system, two or more political parties compete in regularly scheduled elections to control the government. • A few chose a presidential systemthat where, like in the United States, the president and executive branch have considerable power. State power is shared by the national assembly, or legislative branch. French colonies, such as Senegal, Cote d'Ivoire, and Mali inherited this system in which there is a balance of power between the executive and legislative branches of government.
Others chose a parliamentary system. In a parliamentary system, the national assembly (what in the U.S. is the Congress) selects the executive cabinet from among the members of the national assembly. The head of government in this system is called a Prime Minister. African countries such as Ghana, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone inherited a parliamentary system.
Military Governments • Almost every African country that gained independence in the 1960s started out with multiparty systems. However by the end of the 1960s, only a handful of African countries maintained a multiparty system. Indeed by 1970, half of the independent countries in Africa had military governments. The process by which a group of military takes control of government is called a coup d'etatthis is a French term that means an overthrow of the state. • Some coup d'etats were quite violent. In the process of taking control, the soldiers involved killed members of the civilian government, including, at times, the president.
Interactive Notebook Question • If you were the new leader of an African country, how would you prevent a Coup?
The strains on the political system in the early years of independence provided an environment in which corruptionbecame widely practiced in some African countries. A few government officials used their government position to benefit themselves and members of their family. Military leaders often used the pretext of widespread corruption to justify their taking power.
In spite of popular opposition to military rule, between 1960 and 1985 there were 131 attempted coups in Africa, of which 60 were successful! And three countries have had six successful military coups ! Indeed, out of 54 independent African countries, only six countries have not experienced an attempted or successful coup since they became independent .
The Big Four • So how did Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, and South Africa gain their independence?
Kenya • Officially-Republic of Kenya • Controlled by Arabs, Germany, and Britain. • Native Kenyans staged a military rebellion but were quickly defeated. • Independence-Gained on December 12, 1963
Kenya Government Basics • Kenya’s capital city is Nairobi. • Kenya is considered a republic. • Kenya’s population is 45,010,056 (July 2014 est.). • Main ethnic groups are kuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1% • Official language is English.
Kenya Economics Basics • Economy type: mixed market • GDP per capita= $1,800 (2013 est.) • Main exports-tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement • Main imports- machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics • Population below the poverty line= 43.4% (2012 est.)
Nigeria • Nigeria remained a free country until Great Britain colonized the area in the 1800’s. Over time Nigerian (made up of over 250 separate ethnic groups!) begin to work toward quasi-independence while still apart of the British Empire. • In 1960 an independent government was elected. • However by the beginning of the 1970’s Civil Wars began and continued up to 1999.
Nigeria • The unequaled power distribution and corruption led to several back-to-back military coups. • During the oil boom of the 1970s, Nigeria joined OPEC and billions of dollars generated by production in the oil-rich Niger Delta flowed into the coffers of the Nigerian state. However, increasing corruption and graft at all levels of government squandered most of these earnings. • Nigeria today is a Federal Republic modeled after the United States, with executive power exercised by the president .
Nigeria Basics • Africa’s most populous country with over 250 ethnic groups. • The capital city is Abuja. • The official language is English. • The main ethnic groups are Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Nigeria Economy • GDP Per capita- $2,800 (2013 est.) • Economy type-mixed market • Exports- petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber • Imports- machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
South Africa • Officially known as the Republic of South Africa. (Democracy) • Gained independence May 31, 1910 after four years of negotiation for freedom but continued to have close ties with the British. • After four years of negotiating, the Union of South Africa was created. The Natives' Land Act of 1913 severely restricted the ownership of land by 'blacks', at that stage to a mere 7% of the country.
South Africa’s Government • Population-48,375,645 (July 2014 est.) • Capital cities-Pretoria (administrative capital) • Cape Town (legislative capital); Bloemfontein (judicial capital) • Official language-IsiZulu (official) 22.7%, IsiXhosa (official) 16%, Afrikaans (official) 13.5%, English (official) • Main ethnic groups-black African 79.2%, white 8.9%
South Africa’s economy • Leader in world’s gold mining. Huge gold and diamond industry. • GDP Per capita-$11,500 (2013 est.) • Economy type-emerging market • Exports-gold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment • Imports-achinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, foodstuffs
Sudan • Independence Day- January 1, 1956-Colonized by Great Britain. After numerous attempts to gain independence from the British, they finally were successful in 1954 (treaty signed January 1, 1956). • The continued British occupation of Sudan fueled an increasingly strident nationalist backlash in Egypt, with Egyptian nationalist leaders determined to force Britain to recognize a single independent union of Egypt and Sudan. With the formal end of Ottoman rule in 1914, Husayn Kamil was declared Sultan of Egypt and Sudan. • In 1946 British colonial authorities merged southern and northern Sudan into a single administrative region. The inhabitants of southern Sudan primarily practice Christianity and Traditional African religions. Northern Sudan is inhabited by Arab Muslims. Merging the citizens in the previously separate regions led to the first Sudanese civil war and subsequent political and ethnic strife. Today Sudan is an autocratic military dictatorship.
Sudan government basics • Population- 35,482,233 (July 2014 est.) • Government type-Federal republic • Capital city-Khartoum • Official language-Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur • Main ethnic group-Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata