reported speech he said that n.
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Reported speech ( he said that ). a cura della prof.ssa Domitilla Gerini. “I’m feeling ill.”. Look at this situation:. If you want to tell somebody what sarah said there are two ways of doing this :. you can repeat Sarah’s words (direct speech) Sarah said, “I’m feeling ill”.

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if you want to tell somebody what sarah said there are two ways of doing this
Ifyouwanttotellsomebodywhatsarahsaidthere are twowaysofdoingthis:

you can repeat Sarah’s words (direct speech)

Sarah said, “I’m feeling ill”

you can use reported speech:

Sarah said that she was feeling ill.

important rules

COMPARE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES:

Sarah said, “Iam feeling ill ”(direct)

Sarah said that shewas feeling ill (reported)

when we report what someone else said:

the personal pronoun changes

we are usually reporting at a later time so we use the reporting verb (say, tell …) in the past tense

and we normally change the tense used by the original speaker, it moves one tense back (see table on the following slide)

IMPORTANT RULES
slide7

Theseverbsdo notchangewhenthey are reported at a

latertime:

  • Could
  • Would
  • Might
  • Oughtto
  • Usedto
  • and verbs in the pastperfect

See the followingtableforexamples

… but…
must or had to

Whenwe report must, we can useeithermust or hadto

in the reportedspeech, buthadtois more common

Example:

Kate: I mustbuy some fruit” Kate saidshemust/hadtobuy some fruit

BUT BE CAREFUL!

Weusemust, nothadto, whenwe report :

  • a negative sentence

Ex.: Paul “Youmustn’t tell Sally our secret” Paul saidwemustn’t tell Sally our secret

  • or a deduction

Sarah: “Jim mustbetiredafter the flight” Sarah said Jim mustbetiredafter the flight

MUST or hadto?
references to time 1 be careful expressions of time also change
Referencestotime- 1BE CAREFUL:expressionsoftimealsochange…

Referencestotime- 1BE CAREFUL:expressionsoftimealsochange…

reporting questions 1

For yes/ no questionweuseIF or WHETHER

Examples

Directspeech: “Is the weathergood?”

Reportedspeech : Rachel askedwhether the

weatherwasgood

asyou can see

questions are reported USING THE WORD ORDER OF A STATEMENT – WITH THE VERB AFTER THE SUBJECT - ratherthanthatof a question

We don’t say: Rachel askedwhetherwas the weathergood

but:

Rachel askedwhether the weatherwasgood

SUBJECT VERB

REPORTING QUESTIONS - 1
reporting questions 2

Questionswithquestionwords (who, what, etc.) keepthesewordswhenthey are reported and use the word orderof a statement (with the verbafter the subject)

Examples

Directspeech:“How do youfeel?”

Reportedspeech: Rachel asked James howhefelt (not Rachel asked James howdidhefeel)

Reportingquestions - 2
verbs used for reporting to say

Weoftenusesayto report whatsomebodysaid

Hesaid (that) hewasgoingtowin

…but... payattention:

Ifthereisanobject (a noun or a pronoun)

saymustbefollowedbyto:

Hesaidtome (that) hewasgoingtowin (nothesaid me)

Verbsusedforreporting(tosay)
verbs used for reporting to tell

When we use tell to report what someone said, it is always followed by an object without to:

He told them (that) he was going to win

(not he told to them …, he told that …)

Verbsusedforreporting(totell)
reporting in the same tense

If the reportingverbis in the presenttense (e.g

says), weuse the sametensesas the original

speaker

Example:

Tom “I’ve missed the bus so I’llbe a bit late

Tom sayshe’s missed the bus so he’llbe a bit late

Reporting in the sametense
exceptions to the general rule 1

If the reportingverbis in the past (e.g. said), wesometimesuse the sametensesas the original speaker if the situation isstilltrue:

Example 1:

Robert “I havethreesister”

There are twopossibilitieswhenreportingthissentence:

Robert saidhehasthreesisters

or

Robert saidhehadthreesisters

Exceptionsto the generalrule - 1
exceptions to the general rule 2

Example 2:

Carlo: “I’m gettingmarried in June”

Ifwe report what Carlo saidbeforeJunewe can say:

Carlo saidheisgettingmarried in June

or

Carlo saidhewasgettingmarried in June

Exceptionsto the generalrule - 2
other reporting verbs

ORDERSandREQUESTS are reportedusingreporting

verbssuchas:

  • ask
  • order
  • invite

OFFERS, ADVICEandPROMISESare reportedusing the

followingverbs:

  • offer
  • advise
  • promise

SUGGESTIONS are reportedusing:

  • suggest
  • recommend
  • propose
Otherreportingverbs
and now give it a try

Tryto turn the followingsentencesintoreported

speech and thencheckyouranswers!

1. Jane : “ Therewasaninterestingdocumentaryabout

climatechangeyesterday”

1. Jane saidtherehadbeenaninterestingdocumentary

aboutclimatechangethe previousday.

2. Susan : “Jim, wherewillyoubetonight?”

2. Susan asked Jim wherehewouldbethat night.

3. Pete “ Mary, are yougoingtomeetyourfriendsherenext

Saturday?”

3. Peteasked Mary if/ whethershewasgoingtomeetherfriendstherethe followingSaturday.

And now…giveit a try!