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WORLD WAR I “The War to End War” 1917 - 1918. LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE WORLD WAR I. Nationalism. Militarism. Imperialism. Alliances. Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy President Wilson opposed imperialism; believed democracy was necessary to keep the

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World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

WORLD WAR I

“The War to End War”

1917 - 1918


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

LONG-TERM CAUSES

OF THE WORLD WAR I

Nationalism

Militarism

Imperialism

Alliances


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy

President Wilson opposed

imperialism; believed

democracy was

necessary to keep the

nation prosperous.

He said he wanted a

world free from

revolution and war.

But.......

Woodrow Wilson


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • 1911 - Revolution broke out in Mexico.

  • Wilson refused to recognize the new government.

  • 1914 - Wilson sent U.S. Marines to seize the Mexican port of Veracruz and overthrow Huerta, the new leader.

  • Anti-American riots broke out in Mexico.

Huerta


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Pancho Villa led a guerrillaattack into New Mexico, and a number of Americans were killed.

Pancho Villa

  • Wilson sent General John J. Pershing and his troops into Mexico to capture Villa; they were unsuccessful.

  • Wilson’s Mexican policy damaged U.S. foreign relations.

Gen. John J. “Black Jack” Pershing


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

The Outbreak of World War I

  • By 1871 German states were united.

  • The new Germany changed European politics; France and Germany were enemies.

  • Germanyformed the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Britain

Russia

France


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Nationalism Great Britain began an arms race with Germany., intense pride for one’s homeland, was BIG in Europe in the late 1800s.

  • The right to self-determination (idea that people should have their own country and government) was a basic idea of nationalism.

  • Led to Balkans crisis; different national groups in the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires began to seek independence.

NATIONALISM


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • June 1914 - Archduke Great Britain began an arms race with Germany.Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austro-Hungarian throne) was killed by a Bosnian revolutionary.

  • This act set off a chain of events that led to World War I.

Archduke

Franz Ferdinand

and Sophie --

just minutes

before they were

assassinated.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The Great Britain began an arms race with Germany.Allies – France, Russia, Great Britain, and later Italy – fought for the Triple Entente.

  • Germany and Austria-Hungary joined the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria to form the Central Powers.

  • Germany and France became locked in a stalematealong hundreds of miles of trenches.

  • The stalemate lasted three years.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Trench Warfare Great Britain began an arms race with Germany.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Trench Foot Great Britain began an arms race with Germany.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Rats Great Britain began an arms race with Germany.

in the

Trenches


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

American Neutrality Great Britain began an arms race with Germany.

  • Wilson declared the United States to beneutral.

  • Americans, however, began showing support for one side or the other. Many immigrants supported their homelands.

  • Most Americans favored the Allied cause.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Many American banks gave loans to the Allies.

  • As a result, American prosperity was tied to the war.

  • The money would be paid back only if the Allies won.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Propaganda Great Britain began an arms race with Germany. was an important tool in building up the American public’s support of the Allied Powers.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

British propaganda aimed at the USA. Great Britain began an arms race with Germany.

Caption:

"It should be America's duty to help us subdue the mad dog of Europe."


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Moving Toward War Great Britain began an arms race with Germany.

While most Americans supported the Allies, they did not want to enter the war.

  • The British navy blockaded Germany to keep it from getting supplies.

  • To get around the blockade, Germany deployed submarines known asU-boats.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The Lusitania, British passenger liner, was hit by the Germans, killing almost 1,200 passengers – including 128 Americans.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • U.S. warned Germany to stop U-boat strikes! around Britain.

  • Germany did not want the U.S. to join the war and strengthen the Allies, so it agreed to stop.

  • Sussex Pledge - promise made by Germany to stop sinking merchant ships; kept the United States out of the war for a bit longer.

German Imperial Army flag


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • German official, Arthur around Britain. Zimmermann, cabled the German ambassador in Mexico; offered Mexico an alliance with Germany and territory Mexico had previously lost to the U.S.

  • Zimmermann telegram was intercepted by British intelligence and leaked to US newspapers.

  • Americans were furious!!!

Arthur Zimmermann


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

President Woodrow Wilson asking Congress for a Declaration of War


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Building Up the Military submarine warfare; soon after, sank six American merchant ships.

  • More U.S. soldiers needed!

  • Many progressives thought conscription (forced military service) violated democratic principles.

  • A new system of conscription, called selective service, resulted in about 2.8 million Americans being drafted.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The army, choosing not to enlist women, hired them as temporary employees to fill clerical positions.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Organizing radio operators, electricians, pharmacists, photographers, chemists, and torpedo assemblers. Industry

  • President Wilson and Congress wanted to establish a cooperative relationship between big business and government to ensure efficient use of resources during the war.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The radio operators, electricians, pharmacists, photographers, chemists, and torpedo assemblers. Food Administration, under the direction of Herbert Hoover, was responsible for increasing food production while reducing consumption.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Hoover asked people to plant radio operators, electricians, pharmacists, photographers, chemists, and torpedo assemblers. victory gardens to raise their own vegetables in order to leave more food for the troops.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The radio operators, electricians, pharmacists, photographers, chemists, and torpedo assemblers. Fuel Administration encouraged people to conserve coal and oil.

  • Daylight savingstime was introduced to conserve energy.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Mobilizing the Workforce selling

  • To prevent strikes, the government established the National War Labor Board (NWLB) in 1918.

  • In exchange for wage increases, an 8-hour workday, and the right to organize unions and bargain collectively, labor leaders agreed not to strike during the war.

NO

STRIKES!


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Ensuring Public Support selling

  • Espionage, or spying to acquire secret government information, was addressed in the Espionage Act of 1917.

  • It set up consequences for people who aided the enemy.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The selling Sedition Act of 1918 made it illegal to criticize the president or the government.

  • Suspicions of disloyalty led to mistreatment of German Americans. Anti-German feelings sometimes led to violence.

  • Radical labor activists, socialists, pacifists, and anyone appearing disloyal also came under attack.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • In the case of selling Schenck v. United States(1919), the Supreme Court ruling limited an individual’s freedom of speech if the words spoken constituted a “clear and present danger.”


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Combat in World War I selling

  • By 1917 World War I had claimed millions of European lives.

  • Americans believed their troops could bring the war to a quick end.

  • Soldiers dug trenches as protection from modern weapons.

  • “No man’s land” was the space between the opposing trenches.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • To break through enemy lines, selling new technologies were created.

  • Poison gas, first used by the Germans; caused vomiting, blindness, and suffocation.

  • Tanksdid not work well.

  • Airplanesdropped small bombs on the enemy and engaged in air battles ("dogfights").


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

The Americans and Victory selling

  • “Doughboys” - nickname for American soldiers.

  • Entry of American soldiers boosted the morale of Allied forces.

  • Convoys - merchant ships and troop transports were gathered into groups and brought across the Atlantic by warships.

  • Result: reduced shipping losses; ensured that American troops would get to Europe safely.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Lenin


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Lenin pulled Russia out of the war. was not equipped to handle the major problems of the nation.

  • Signed theTreatyof Brest-Litovskwith Germany.

  • This closed the Eastern Front for Germany.

Territories surrendered by Soviet Russia due to Brest-Litovsk Treaty


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

A Flawed Peace massive attack in American history; devastated German troops.

  • January 1919 - Allied nations met to resolve issues caused by WWI.

  • Wilson’s plan - called the Fourteen Points.

  • Tried to eliminate general causes of the war:

    1. Free trade (Imperialism)

    2. Disarmament (Militarism)

    3. Open diplomacy (Secret Alliances)

    4. Self-determination (Nationalism)

X

X

X

X


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Fourteenth point massive attack in American history; devastated German troops. , known as the League of Nations, called for member nations to help preserve peace and prevent future wars.

THE FOURTEEN POINTS Woodrow Wilson – 1/18/1918

1. Open alliances 6-13. Specific provisions for:

2. Freedom of the seas Russia, Belgium, France

3. Open trade Italy, Austria-Hungary

4. Disarmament Balkan Nations, Turkey

5. Self-determination

for nations

14. League of Nations


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

“The Big Four” Lloyd George (Great Britain); Orlando (Italy); Clemenceau (France); Wilson (US)

Peace Conference at Versailles


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The other Allied governments felt that Wilson’s plan was too lenient toward Germany.

  • Treaty of Versailles - weakened Wilson’s proposal. Stripped Germany of its armed forces and made it pay reparations(war damages) to Allies.

  • Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations were opposed by many U.S. lawmakers.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The too lenient toward Germany.Senate refused to ratifythe treaty.

  • Instead, the United States negotiated separate peace treaties with each of the Central Powers.


M c 3 3a
M/C 3-3a too lenient toward Germany.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

An Economy In Turmoil too lenient toward Germany.

  • Rapid inflationresulted when government agencies removed their controls from the American economy. Inflation increased the cost of living.

  • Workers needed higher wagesto keep up with the cost of living, but companies wanted to lower wagesdue to an increase in operating costs.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • The number of members in too lenient toward Germany.unionsincreased greatly during the war.

  • Unions were better organized than before.

  • Business leaders wanted to break the power of unions.

  • Result: Lots of strikes!

  • Led to fear among U.S. public.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • General strikes too lenient toward Germany.– strikes that involve all workers living in a certain location; worried Americans because they were commonly used in Europe by Communists and other radicals.

  • The Seattle general strike involved more than 60,000 people and brought the city to a halt for five days.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • 1919 - 75 percent of the police force of Boston went on strike.

  • Governor of Massachusetts, CalvinCoolidge, called in the National Guard to stop looting.

  • When police tried to return to work, Coolidge fired them; a new police force was hired to replace the striking policemen.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Racial Unrest strike.

  • 1919 - race riots in many Northern cities.

  • Cause: return of thousands of American soldiers who needed to find jobs.

  • African Americans, who had moved north to work, were now competing for the same jobs as the returning soldiers.


Riots

  • The violence lasted almost two weeks.

Riots


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

Fear of Communism African Americans entered each others’ neighborhoods and attacked one another.

  • After World War I, Americans associated communism with disloyalty and unpatriotic behavior.

  • The numerous strikes in the U.S. in 1919made Americans fear thatCommunists, or “reds,” might take control.

  • This led to a nationwide panic known as the Red Scare.


World war i the war to end war 1917 1918

  • Numerous mail bombs African Americans entered each others’ neighborhoods and attacked one another.

  • One bomb damaged home of U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer.

  • Most people felt it was Communists trying to destroy the American way of life.

US Attorney General

A. Mitchell Palmer


Chapter assessment 1

Reviewing Key Terms African Americans entered each others’ neighborhoods and attacked one another.

Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left.

D

__ 1. German submarine, term means Unterseeboot (undersea boat)

__ 2. payment by the losing country in a war to the winner for the damages caused by the war

__ 3. goods whose importation, exportation, or possession is illegal

__ 4. the spreading of ideas about an institution or individual for the purpose of influencing opinion

__ 5. requiring people enter military service

A. guerrilla

B. propaganda

C. contraband

D. U-boat

E. conscription

F. victory garden

G. espionage

H. armistice

I. reparations

J. deport

I

C

B

E

Chapter Assessment 1


Chapter assessment 2

Reviewing Key Terms African Americans entered each others’ neighborhoods and attacked one another. (cont.)

Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left.

F

__ 6. gardens planted by American citizens during war to raise vegetables for home use, leaving more for the troops

__ 7. to expel individuals from the country

__ 8. spying, especially to gain government secrets

__ 9. a temporary agreement to end fighting

__ 10. armed band that carries out surprise attacks and sabotage rather than open warfare

A. guerrilla

B. propaganda

C. contraband

D. U-boat

E. conscription

F. victory garden

G. espionage

H. armistice

I. reparations

J. deport

J

G

H

A

Chapter Assessment 2