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SKELETAL DISEASES NOTES. Osteoporosis: What is it? . Loss of bone density and mass Bones become more porous, increasing risk of fractures. Osteoporosis. 52 year old Female. 84 year old Female. Osteoporosis: Causes. More common in women, especially of Asian and European descent

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osteoporosis what is it
Osteoporosis: What is it?
  • Loss of bone density and mass
  • Bones become more porous, increasing risk of fractures

52 year old Female

84 year old Female

osteoporosis causes
Osteoporosis: Causes
  • More common in women, especially of Asian and European descent
  • Aging leads to a loss of osteoblasts  loss in bone density
  • With the onset of menopause (mid-forties to fifties), diminishing estrogen levels lead to excessive bone resorption (osteoclast activity)
osteoporosis treatment
Osteoporosis: Treatment


  • Vitamin D and calcium supplements
  • drugs that slow bone loss
  • frequent moderate exercise (help make bones stronger)


  • drugs that raise estrogen levels
arthritis what is it
Arthritis: What is it?
  • Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune (body attacking itself) disease which causes joint stiffness and bone deformity
  • Inflammation and swelling of flexible joints, destruction of articular cartilage, and ankylosis (fusion of joints)
arthritis causes
Arthritis: Causes
  • Osteoarthritis is caused by wear and tear on articular cartilage due to age, injury, frequent use, or infection.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease where antibodies attack articular cartilage leading to inflammationetc. While its cause is unknown, there is a genetic component and smokers are at increased risk.
arthritis treatment
Arthritis: Treatment

Depends on the cause…

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs (Advil, steroids)
  • cold-packs
  • immune-suppressing drugs (rheumatoid)
  • Physical Therapy (PT)
  • Surgery
  • Stem cells  regrow cartilage
scoliosis what is it
Scoliosis: What is it?
  • An abnormal curvature of the spine from side-to-side. Often not painful, but can be. Most often diagnosed and develops in adolescence. Also seen in elderly patients.
scoliosis causes
Scoliosis: Causes
  • Mostly unknown. Can develop from problems in other parts of the body (spina bifida, cerebral palsy), arthritis, improper development of the spine at birth, or have genetic causes.
  • Bracing, surgery, PT, and chiropractics (older patients)
rickets what is it
Rickets: What is it?
  • Softening of bones which can lead to bone tenderness, bow-legged posture, improper skeletal development, tetany (uncontrolled muscle spasms)
rickets causes
Rickets: Causes
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Lack of calcium in diet
  • Vitamin D is required for proper calcium absorption
  • Vitamin D is produced when you are exposed to sunlight (UV rays). Darker-skinned people require longer exposure to sunlight
  • Rarely seen in developed countries. Most commonly seen today in developing countries where children are malnourished.
  • Vitamin D supplement + Calcium supplement in diet
  • Exposure to sunlight
  • Children in developed nations don’t go outdoors as much and often play inside on their electronic devices. Why do you think rickets are not a problem then for children in these countries?
  • Milk + Vitamin D
blount s disease what is it
Blount’s Disease: What is it?
  • Bow-leggedness that becomes progressively worse with age. Often seen in children and adolescents. Associated with overweight individuals.
blount s disease causes
Blount’s Disease: Causes
  • The inner part of the tibia under the patella fails to develop properly leading to a slanting of the bones, angled inward.
  • This developmental failure is often the result of extra stress placed on the tibia with obese individuals
blount s disease treatment
Blount’s Disease: Treatment
  • Bracing
  • Surgery
  • Diet/Exercise to promote long-term success of treatment
sprain what is it
Sprain: What is it?
  • Usually painful
  • Injured portion often swells and may turn black and blue
  • Occurs at joints. Result of an injury to a ligament or to the tissue that covers a joint.
sprain causes
Sprain: Causes
  • Most sprains result from a sudden wrench that stretches or tears the tissues of the ligaments.
  • Common in athletes
sprain treatment
Sprain: Treatment
  • RICE:
    • Rest (first 48 hours using crutches, splint)
    • Ice (first 48 hours for 20 minutes every 3-4 hours)
    • Compression (wrap it snuggly)
    • Elevate (higher than heart)
kyphosis what is it
Kyphosis: What is it?
  • Deformity of the upper portion of the spinal column that results in severe forward bending of the spine (hunchback)
kyphosis causes
Kyphosis: Causes
  • In children and adolescents, this condition may result from poor posture, misshapen vertebrae or problems during fetal development.
  • In adults, this condition is often the result of another disease, such as arthritis, osteoporosis, trauma, or cancer
kyphosis treatment
Kyphosis: Treatment
  • Exercise/Physical Therapy (if minor)
  • Bracing (moderate)
  • Surgery (severe)