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  1. Finals Review

  2. Breakdown of the exam: • 140 total questions • 60 from midterm • Ch.1  6 • Ch.2  15 • Ch.3  15 • Ch.4 6 • Ch.10 8 • Ch.5  10 • 80 from 2nd semester • Ch.6  10 • Ch. 7  25 • Ch. 8  20 • Ch. 9  25

  3. Pre-Midterm

  4. Ch.1 Concepts • Branches of oceanography (chemical, physical, geologic, etc.) • Historical figures • Technology • ROV • AOV • SONAR • SCUBA 6

  5. Ch.2 Concepts 15 • 4 ocean basins & characteristics • Layers of the earth [inner core, outer core, mantle, asthenosphere, lithosphere, crust] • Continental margin [active vs. passive] [parts of the margin] • Seafloor spreading/Mid ocean ridge/divergent • Subduction / trench/ convergent • Wegener & Continental Drift

  6. 15 Ch.3 Concepts • Water properties – polarity, heat capacity, universal solvent • Water relationships – temp., density, salinity, buoyancy • Salinity – salt content in open ocean water, PSU • Gases dissolved in seawater • Changes in pressure with depth – 14.7psi/10 meters, gases contract • Wind & the movement of water • Coriolis effect • California current • Tides – causes, interpretation of a tide table • Gravitational force • Centrifugal force • Neap tide vs. spring tide • Phases of the moon and tides • Anatomy of a wave – crest, trough, wave length, height • Life cycle of a wave – sea, swell, surf • Factors that affect wave size – wind intensity, duration, fetch size

  7. 6 Ch.4 Concepts • Autotroph vs. heterotroph • Differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells • Levels of organization – cell, tissue, organ, organ system, individual, population, community, ecosystem • Osmosis • Types of solution – hypotonic, isotonic, hypertonic (seawater!) • Osmoconformers • Osmoregulators • Four major macromolecules of life • Carbohydrates – sugars and starches, for energy • Lipids – fats, store energy, repel water • Proteins – chains of amino acids • Nucleic acids – composition of DNA & RNA, differences between them • Classification of Life – KPCOFGS (know the order and what they stand for!!)

  8. 8 Ch.10 Concepts • Abiotic vs. biotic factors, examples • Ecological relationships • Predation • Competition • Symbiosis • Trophic levels and food webs • Benthic (bottom) vs. pelagic (water column) • Pelagic organisms • Plankton vs. nekton • Phytoplankton vs. zooplankton

  9. 10 Ch.5 Concepts • Prokarya • Bacteria [cyanobacteria, decay bacteria] [stromatolites] • Archaea Extreme! • Aerobic vs. Anaerobic respiration • Eukarya • Unicellular algae • Diatom • Dinoflagellates • Coccolithophorids • Protozoans • Foraminiferan • Radiolarian • Ciliate

  10. Post-Midterm

  11. 10 Ch.6 Concepts • Parts of Seaweed (holdfast, stipe, blade, thallus, pneumatocyst) • Kingdom Protista • GREEN • Mostly freshwater • Pigment is Chlorophyll A • BROWN • Mostly marine • Pigment is Fucoxanthin • KELP!! • RED • Most abundant/common type • Pigment is phycobilins • Phycocolloids • Agar • Carageenan • Algin • Marine plants • Sea grass • Salt marsh • Mangrove forest

  12. 25 Ch.7 Concepts • Invertebrate vs. vertebrate • Symmetry [Anterior/Posterior/Dorsal/Ventral] • Porifera (Sponges) • Ostia, osculum, spicule, choanocyte • Sessile, assymetrical • Cnidaria (anemone & jellyfish) • Polyp vs. medusa • Anthozoa, hydrozoa, schyphozoa, cubozoa • Nematocyst, tissue organization, radial symmetry • Nemertea (ribbon, carnivore) • Nematoda (round, parasite) • Platyhelminthes (flat, parasite) • Annelida (segmented)

  13. Ch.7 Concepts (Continued) • Mollusca (examples, anatomical features: beak, siphon, mantle, tentacles, arms, radula, • Bivalvia • Gastropoda • Cephalopoda • Arthropoda • Crustacea • Chelipeds • Head, thorax, abdomen • Pleopods • Exoskeleton  Carapace (chitin) • Echinodermata • Asteroidea: Starfish • Pentamorous radial symmetry • Evisceration • Endoskeletons • Tube feet

  14. Ch.8 Concepts 20 • Class Agnatha (jawless)  hagfish, lamprey • Class Osteichthyes • Ctenoid • Operculum • bony • Class Chondricthyes • Placoid • cartilaginous • Biology of fish • Coloration • Disruptive • Warning • Cryptic • Locomotion • Feeding • Circulation • Reproduction • Catadromous • Anadromous

  15. 25 Ch. 9 Reptiles, Birds Concepts • Class Aves: Birds (hollow bones, cloaca) • Penguins (southern hemisphere only + denser bones, flippers) • Pelicans (DDT) • Albatross (wingspan) • Class Reptila: Sea Turtles (carapace, gender of babies, oviparous) • Endangered

  16. Ch.9 Mammals Concepts • Characteristics of marine mammals (hair, blubber, viviparous, placenta, mammary glands, warm-blooded) • 4 orders • Pinnipedia • Carnivora • Sirenia • Cetacea • Baleen • Toothed • Biology of marine mammals • Echolocation • Communication • Behaviors • Breaching • Beaching • Reproduction • Harems